European Commission


Keywords details

The keyword 'consumer' has been found in the following documents:

UCP Directive

Article 2 (a)

EC Guidance

No EC Guidance found for this keyword


National ID Common name Subject Directive article Date decision Decision type
6 U 2279/08 undue influence Article 5 1.
Article 5 2.
26/11/2009 Court decision in appeal
Court of Appeal Antwerp, 30 June 2009 consumer Article 2 (a)
30/06/2009 Court decision in appeal

Legal Literature

Reference Title Author Date
2005 12(5) CLP 125 The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive and the average consumer N. REILLY 2005
e-commercelaw&policy, Volume 7, Issue 11, November 2005 Commercial Practices: Unfair Commercial Practices Directive: an analysis N. MILLER 2005
Pandectele Romane nr. 5/2009 The concept of "consumer" under Law no. 363/2007 on fighting against the unfair commercial practices of traders in relation to consumers J. GOICOVICI 2009
Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, 2007, 7/8, pages 124-136 A closer look on legislative practices: an analysis of the implementation of the UCP Directive in The Netherlands L. STEIJGER 2007
MKB-Adviseur, 2008-5, pages 6-11 Fair trade: judging misleading commercial advertising and other unfair commercial practices J.J.C. KABEL 2008
Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Europees Recht, 2005-9, pages 179-184 The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive: a fair compromise B.J. DRIJBER 2005
H. DE BAUW (ed.), Handelspraktijken en mededinging, Diegem, Kluwer, 2008, 331-351 The prohibition of pyramid selling in the UCP Directive: a redundant provision H. DE BAUW 2008 - legal informational server, September 14, 2009 and Obchodněprávní revue, 2009, No. 2 Weakened consumer protection? The current interpretation of the UCP Directive P. HAJN 2009
Ατομική και συλλογική προστασία των καταναλωτών από την έλλειψη ουσιαστικής διαπραγμάτευσης των όρων της σύμβασης, 2008, Εκδόσεις Σάκκουλα Αθήνα-Θεσσαλονίκη Individual and collective protection of the consumers against the lack of substantive negotiation of contract terms G.I.DELLIOS 2008
Acta conventus de iure civili, vol. 7, 2007, pages 41-54 Questions relating to the Hungarian implementation of the UCP Directive (Directive 2005/29/EC on Unfair Commercial Practices) ZS. HAJNAL 2007
Európai Tükör /European Review/, 2009, vol. 9, pages 54-66 Regulation of unfair commercial practices in the European Union E. ZS. TÁRCZY 2009
Gazdaság és Jog /Economy and Law/, 2009, vol. 4, pages 7-11 Unfair commercial practices and advertising - change of the concept of regulation L. PRIBULA 2009
Η έννοια του καταναλωτή σήμερα – Ιδίως στις καταρτιζόμενες με ΓΟΣ πιστωτικές συμβάσεις, Δίκαιο Επιχειρήσεων και Εταιρειών 1/2010, 4-18 The notion of consumer today – In particular in the general terms and conditions of the credit contracts P.A. PAPANIKOLAOU 2010
Aranzadi Civil-Mercantil Núm. 1/2012. Pamplona 2012 New relationships between the Trademarks Law and the Unfair Competition Law R. GARCÍA PÉREZ 2012
Revista de Direito das Sociedades, Ano III (2011) – Número I, Director: António Menezes Cordeiro, pages 187-219 Unfair business-to-consumer commercial practices J. MORAIS CARVALHO 2011
Studia Prawa Prywatnego, 2011, no. 2, pages 33-70 The law on fair competition and the protection of customers in the light of the Unfair Commercial Practices Act. R. STEFANICKI 2011

Other materials

Title Emanating from
Misleading and aggressive commercial practices: a new private right for consumers - overview and frequently asked questions Department for Business, Innovation & Skills


definition of consumer