ARTICLE 28 — EXPLOITATION OF RESULTS
28.1 Obligation to exploit the results
Each beneficiary must — up to four years after the period set out in Article 3 — take measures aiming to ensure ‘exploitation’ of its results (either directly or indirectly, in particular through transfer or licensing; see Article 30) by:
(a) using them in further research activities (outside the action);
(b) developing, creating or marketing a product or process;
(c) creating and providing a service, or
(d) using them in standardisation activities.
[OPTION for additional exploitation obligations if foreseen in the work programme: In addition, the beneficiaries must — up to four years after the period set out in Article 3 — comply with the additional exploitation obligations set out in Annex 1.]
This does not change the security obligations in Article 37, which still apply.
28.2 Results that could contribute to European or international standards — Information on EU funding
[OPTION for results that could contribute to standards if foreseen in the work programme: If results could reasonably be expected to contribute to European or international standards, the beneficiary concerned must — up to four years after the period set out in Article 3 — inform the [Commission][Agency].]
If results are incorporated in a standard, the beneficiary concerned must — unless the [Commission][Agency] requests or agrees otherwise or unless it is impossible — ask the standardisation body to include the following statement in (information related to) the standard:
"Results incorporated in this standard received funding from the [European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme][Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018] under grant agreement No [Number]".
If a beneficiary breaches any of its obligations under this Article, the grant may be reduced in accordance with Article 43.
Such a breach may also lead to any of the other measures described in Chapter 6.
1. Exploitation of results
The beneficiaries must take measures aiming to ensure exploitation of their results — either by themselves (e.g. for further research or for commercial or industrial exploitation in its own activities) or by others (other beneficiaries or third parties, e.g. through licensing or by transferring the ownership of results).
The obligation applies only to beneficiaries receiving EU funding (see Article 9).
Where possible, the measures should be consistent with the impact expected from the action and the plan for the exploitation and dissemination of the results.
If the GA provides for additional exploitation obligations, these must also be fulfilled. (Such additional exploitation obligations will already be mentioned in the work programme/call.)
If the GA includes the option for information on standardisation, the beneficiaries must moreover inform the Commission/Agency on any results that could contribute to European or international standards.
Example: The results are produced in an area in which standards play an important role (such as in mobile communication, diagnostics or immunological diseases).