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Teachers and Education Staff

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This topic focuses on the main aspects of education system organisation with regard to teachers and education staff.

For each main level it focuses on three major topics: initial teacher education and training, conditions of service, and continuing professional development.
If you would like country specific information on this topic, please click on the appropriate flag at the bottom of the page.

Initial Educational for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

The general organisation of initial teacher education is described here. There are also details given on whether teachers who work with pupils with special education needs receive special training. There is also an indication of whether specialist teachers of arts subjects, sports subjects and foreign languages who teach in public or grant-aided private schools receive special training.

Institutions, Levels and Models of Training
Here the one of more training models that characterise initial teacher education in the country concerned are explained, namely:
• The consecutive model in which student first undertake general education to obtain a degree and then later enroll for professional training to qualify as teachers
• Concurrent model which is a single programme in which students embarking on tertiary education combine general education in one or more subjects with theoretic and practical professional teacher training

Admission Requirements
The procedures for admission to initial teacher education are described here namely:
• The criteria candidates are expected to satisfy e.g. possession of final (upper) secondary school leaving certificate or the equivalent qualification, exam results, entrance exams, interviews etc.
• Administrative criteria e.g. place of residence, age of applicant etc.

Curriculum, Level of Specialisation and Learning Outcomes
Here readers can find information relating to whether there are minimum requirements relating to certain compulsory subjects and whether the skills which have been acquired or learning outcomes are clearly specified.
This section also explains if:
• Curricula for initial teacher education are determined by education authorities or institutions themselves
• Training in certain specific skills (managements/admin/managing culturally diverse groups) is included in the compulsory curriculum

The level of specialisation involved in the qualification is also described.

Teacher Educators
Here it is explained how teachers are trained namely:
• If a teacher educator needs a specific qualification
• If a teacher trainer needs to have a teaching qualification of the level for which they are training future teachers


Qualifications, Evaluation and Certificates
The evaluation methods, procedures and criteria and the skills or final qualifications that candidates should possess if they enter the teaching profession, namely:
Which final qualification is awarded (Bachelor, Master or other Diploma)
• Written or oral exams
• Portfolios
• Research papers

Alternative Training Pathways
Any alternative routes available are explained here e.g. employment based training.

Conditions of Service for Teaching Working in Early Childhood Education and Care

Here the arrangements governing the conditions of service of teachers are highlighted.

Planning Policy
If a planning policy for teacher supply and demand exists, it is described here including information on:
• Aims and the measures adopted by policy makers
• The various parameters selected (e.g. statistical projections of demographic trends etc)
• The period covered by the planning

Entry to the Profession
The recruitment process is described here namely:
• Competitive exams
• Candidate lists
• Open recruitment

Induction
The structure phase of support given to teachers starting their first contract at a school is described here namely,
• Duration
• Whether or not it is compulsory
• Which persons are involved in its organisation
• The involvement of a mentor

This is not to be confused with introductory programmes as to the functioning of a specific school.

Professional Status
Whether or not teachers are career civil servants or not is explained here. The various contracts available are described e.g. permanent/ fixed term.

Replacement Measures
This section describes which solution, if any, education authorities or schools apply to replace teachers on a temporary basis.

Support Measures
All forms of support and assistance available for teachers are described here.

Salaries
Information on the following is contained here:

• Basic salary
• Various scales
• Whether scales resemble a matrix
• Factors taken into consideration for placing new teachers at a particular point on the scale e.g. nature and duration of experience, training etc.
• Factors for awarding salary increases e.g. completion of further training, successful appraisals etc.
• Bonuses
• Non-earning related incentives e.g. health care, travel benefits etc.
• Whether salaries are negotiated freely or are only based on agreement e.g. between trade unions and employers

Working Time and Holidays
Here it is explained whether the working times of teachers related to the number of hours of actual teaching and/or a number of hours during which duties have to be performed at the school (availability) or overall working times. The following is also detailed:
• The length of a lesson
• Possibilities to reduce the teaching time for those close to retirement
• Different tasks specified in teachers' contracts (teaching, administration, supervision etc.)
• Total holiday time in days or weeks-where the number of days is not the same for all teachers, authors should explain why there are differences

Promotion and Advancement
Here specific information is given about possibilities for promotion or career advancement ("expert" teachers, opportunities for transferal to the inspectorate etc.)

Mobility and Transfers
This section contains information on the transfer of teachers between schools including whether teachers can do this of their own free will or whether there are circumstances under which they may be obliged to move.

Dismissal
Specific information on the dismissal or suspension of teachers is included here.

Retirement and Pensions
Circumstances relating to the retirement of teachers such as official retirement age, years of service necessary etc. are described here.

Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

The main features of opportunities for continuing professional development for teachers is available here.

Organisational Aspects
The following aspects of continuing professional development activities are described:
• Whether it is considered a professional task, optional or necessary
• Whether it is organised during working hours or not
• Whether a training plan has to be established and at what level
• Who the organisers and providers are

Incentives for Participation in Continuing Professional Development (CPD)
Any benefits or incentives for teachers to undertake CPD is described here e.g. entitlement to training leave.

Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

The general organisation of initial training for higher academic staff is described. Details such as the following are given:
• The institution responsible for the training of academic staff
• Duration of programmes
• Procedures for admission (and the decision making bodies for this)
• Whether training focuses on specific skill e.g. teaching diverse ability groups/culturally diverse groups

Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

The conditions of service for academic staff are described identifying the decision making bodies responsible for the different phrases of academic careers.

Planning Policy
If a planning policy for teacher supply and demand exists, it is described here including information on:
• Aims and the measures adopted by policy makers
• The various parameters selected (e.g. statistical projections of demographic trends etc)
• The period covered by the planning

Entry to the Profession
The recruitment process is described here namely:
• Competitive exams
• Candidate lists
• Open recruitment

Professional Status
Whether or not teachers are career civil servants or not is explained here. The various contracts available are described e.g. permanent/ fixed term.

Salaries
Information on the following is contained here:

• The institutions responsible for determining salary scales
• Established norms for the salary of academic staff
• Salary scales

Working Time and Holidays
How the working time of academic staff is typically constituted is clarified here. How the different tasks of academic staff are specified in the contract is also described here. The holiday allocation of academic staff is indicated in days or weeks per year.

Promotion, Advancement
The possibilities for promotion or career advancement and the conditions to which it is subject are described here.

Retirement and Pensions
Circumstances relating to the retirement of academic staff are described here. It is indicated whether:
• Staff may retire before they reach official retirement age (and whether their pension is reduced as a result)
• The retirement ages of men and women differ

Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

The main categories for those working as teachers/trainers in the framework of different programmes/provisions of continuing adult education are identified here. Whether or not certain qualifications are needed or not is also described.

Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Various aspects such as recruitment, professional status, salaries and promotion, mobility etc. are described here.

Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

The main features of opportunities for continuing professional development for teachers/trainers working in the framework of different programmes/provisions for adult education are described here.

 

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