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Sweden:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

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Overview Sweden

Contents

Sweden:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Sweden:Historical Development

Sweden:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Sweden:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Sweden:Political and Economic Situation

Sweden:Organisation and Governance

Sweden:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Sweden:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Sweden:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Sweden:Organisation of Private Education

Sweden:National Qualifications Framework

Sweden:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Sweden:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Sweden:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Sweden:Funding in Education

Sweden:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Sweden:Higher Education Funding

Sweden:Adult Education and Training Funding

Sweden:Early Childhood Education and Care

Sweden:Organisation of Programmes for Pre-Primary Education

Sweden:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Pre-Primary Education

Sweden:Assessment in Programmes for Pre-Primary Education

Sweden:Organisation of the Pre-Primary Class

Sweden:Teaching and Learning in the Pre-Primary Class

Sweden:Assessment in the Pre-Primary Class

Sweden:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Sweden:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Sweden:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Sweden:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Sweden:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Sweden:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Sweden:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Sweden:Organisation of Upper General and Vocational Secondary Education

Sweden:Teaching and Learning in Upper General and Vocational Secondary Education

Sweden:Assessment in Upper General and Vocational Secondary Education

Sweden:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Sweden:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Sweden:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Sweden:Higher Education

Sweden:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Sweden:First Cycle Programmes

Sweden:Bachelor

Sweden:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Sweden:Second Cycle Programmes

Sweden:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Sweden:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Sweden:Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Distribution of Responsibilities

Sweden:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Sweden:Main Providers

Sweden:Main Types of Provision

Sweden:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Sweden:Teachers and Education Staff

Sweden:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Sweden:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Sweden:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Sweden:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Management and Other Education Staff

Sweden:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Sweden:Management Staff for Higher Education

Sweden:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Sweden:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Quality Assurance

Sweden:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Sweden:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Educational Support and Guidance

Sweden:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Sweden:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Sweden:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Sweden:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Sweden:Mobility and Internationalisation

Sweden:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Mobility in Higher Education

Sweden:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Sweden:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Sweden:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Sweden:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Sweden:National Reforms in School Education

Sweden:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Sweden:National Reforms in Higher Education

Sweden:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Sweden:European Perspective

Sweden:Legislation

Sweden:Institutions

Sweden:Glossary

Introduction

Sweden has a single structure compulsory education, of which lower secondary education is a part, so this chapter contains information solely about upper secondary education, i.e. for pupils between the ages 16 to 19. For more information on lower secondary education see chapter 5 - Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education).

A new structure for the upper secondary school (gymnasieskolan) was introduced 1 July 2011. The former 17 national programmes were replaced by 18 national programmes: 6 higher education preparatory programmes and 12 vocational programmes. The individual programme was replaced by five introductory programmes, individually adapted to the pupils. History has been introduced as a new common core subject for all programmes.

For students enrolled in upper secondary education before July 2011, the former structure will apply through 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. In this structure, there are 17 three-year national programmes. Furthermore, there are specially designed programmes, as well as local variations of the national programmes. There are also individual programmes aimed primarily at making pupils eligible for a national programme or a subject focused programme.

All upper secondary school programmes include the same eight upper secondary foundation subjects (gymnasiegemensamma ämnen): physical education and health, Swedish or Swedish as a second language, English, history, social studies, religion, mathematics and science studies. In addition to the upper secondary foundation subjects pupils study what is nationally referred to as programme specific subjects (programgemensamma ämnen), which are specific to their chosen programme. General and vocational branches are provided within the same institutions. Education is given on a full-time basis.

Upper secondary schools may be run by municipalities, or by independent organisers such as grant-aided independent schools (fristående skolor). (For more information regarding grant-aided independent schools see 2:4 - Organisation of private education.) There is one national programme run by county councils (the national programme for Natural Resource Use, ‘naturbruksutbildning’). In municipalities and county councils there are one or more committees responsible for the local schools. The school head is responsible for the daily management; sometimes there are one or more deputy heads. Each municipality has the right to establish its own upper secondary school.

For information on the national upper secondary school for pupils with impaired hearing (riksgymnasiet för döva och hörselskadade), national upper secondary schools for pupils with severe physical disabilities (riksgymnasium för svårt rörelsehindrade) and upper secondary schools for pupils with severe intellectual impairments (gymnasiesärskolor) see 12 - Educational Support and Guidance.

Municipal upper secondary schools are free of charge and the pupils shall have access to books, tools and other equipment. Upper secondary schools may charge an insignificant fee for occasional activities, and in some cases the pupils have to purchase materials to be used. Upper secondary schools are also allowed to charge a fee for the school lunch. Grant-aided independent schools (friskolor) at upper secondary level have to be approved by the Swedish Schools Inspectorate (Skolinspektionen) . Grant-aided schools are not allowed to charge tuition fees.

The national school system is governed by the Education Act (Skollagen, 2010:800), decided by the Riksdag. The Education Act contains general regulations for all types of schools and pupils' right to education. The national curriculum, adopted by the government, sets out the tasks and overall objectives of upper secondary education, as well as the values that are to form the basis of teaching. The Riksdag decides on the number and contents of programmes and compulsory subjects and on which subjects are to be course specific ‘core subjects’. The government sets out the programme goals of each national programme at upper secondary school, gymnasieskolan. The programme goals describe the purpose and objective of the course. The National Agency for Education adopts syllabi. The syllabi set out the goals of the teaching of each individual subject and course.

The general goals and guidelines are set out in the curriculum for the upper secondary school (Läroplan för gymnasieskola 2011), which applies to the upper secondary school (gymnasieskolan), upper secondary education for pupils with intellectual impairments (gymnasiesärskola), the national upper secondary school for pupils with impaired hearing (riksgymnasiet för döva och hörselskadade), national upper secondary schools for pupils with severe physical disabilities (riksgymnasium för svårt rörelsehindrade), municipal adult education (kommunernas vuxenutbildning) and adult education for individuals with learning disabilities (särvux). The curriculum for non-compulsory schools sets out the tasks and goals for youth and adult education separately, see 6.2 - Curriculum.

The opening text of the curriculum states the school's fundamental values. At the core lies the democratic principles of the individual’s right of being able to influence, take responsibility and be involved, and these values shall embrace all pupils. The pupils’ responsibility for planning and managing their studies as well as their influence on the contents and structures shall be important principles in education. According to the Education Act (Skollagen, 2010:800), it is incumbent on all in school to work for democratic working structures. The inviolability of human life, individual freedom and integrity, the equal value of all people, equality between women and men and solidarity with the weak and vulnerable are values that the school shall represent and impart. In accordance with the ethics borne by Christian tradition and Western humanism, this is achieved by fostering a sense of justice, generosity of spirit, tolerance and responsibility in the individual person. School education shall be non-denominational. The task of the school is to encourage all pupils to discover their own uniqueness as individuals and thereby actively participate in social life by giving of their best in responsible freedom.

The Education Act (Skollagen, 2010:800)

Law on service and support to certain people with disabilities (Lag om stöd och service till vissa funktionshindrade 'SFS 1993:387)

The National Agency for Education (Skolverket)