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Sweden:Organisation of Private Education

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Overview Sweden

Contents

Sweden:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Sweden:Historical Development

Sweden:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Sweden:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Sweden:Political and Economic Situation

Sweden:Organisation and Governance

Sweden:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Sweden:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Sweden:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Sweden:Organisation of Private Education

Sweden:National Qualifications Framework

Sweden:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Sweden:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Sweden:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Sweden:Funding in Education

Sweden:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Sweden:Higher Education Funding

Sweden:Adult Education and Training Funding

Sweden:Early Childhood Education and Care

Sweden:Organisation of Programmes for Pre-Primary Education

Sweden:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Pre-Primary Education

Sweden:Assessment in Programmes for Pre-Primary Education

Sweden:Organisation of the Pre-Primary Class

Sweden:Teaching and Learning in the Pre-Primary Class

Sweden:Assessment in the Pre-Primary Class

Sweden:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Sweden:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Sweden:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Sweden:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Sweden:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Sweden:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Sweden:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Sweden:Organisation of Upper General and Vocational Secondary Education

Sweden:Teaching and Learning in Upper General and Vocational Secondary Education

Sweden:Assessment in Upper General and Vocational Secondary Education

Sweden:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Sweden:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Sweden:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Sweden:Higher Education

Sweden:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Sweden:First Cycle Programmes

Sweden:Bachelor

Sweden:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Sweden:Second Cycle Programmes

Sweden:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Sweden:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Sweden:Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Distribution of Responsibilities

Sweden:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Sweden:Main Providers

Sweden:Main Types of Provision

Sweden:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Sweden:Teachers and Education Staff

Sweden:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Sweden:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Sweden:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Sweden:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Management and Other Education Staff

Sweden:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Sweden:Management Staff for Higher Education

Sweden:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Sweden:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Quality Assurance

Sweden:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Sweden:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Educational Support and Guidance

Sweden:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Sweden:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Sweden:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Sweden:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Sweden:Mobility and Internationalisation

Sweden:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Mobility in Higher Education

Sweden:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Sweden:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Sweden:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Sweden:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Sweden:National Reforms in School Education

Sweden:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Sweden:National Reforms in Higher Education

Sweden:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Sweden:European Perspective

Sweden:Legislation

Sweden:Institutions

Sweden:Glossary

Introduction

Sweden has a system with grant-aided independent schools (fristående skolor) parallel to the municipal schools. The system applies for preschool, compulsory school and upper secondary school. Both municipal and independent schools at compulsory level are grant-aided and free of charge, see 3.1 - Funding. If a school charges fees from its pupils or infer negative consequences for the school system in the municipality, the Swedish Schools Inspectorate (Skolinspektionen) can deny entitlement to municipal resources. An approved grant-aided independent school is allocated resources from the municipality for the children that participate in its activities. The Swedish Schools Inspectorate monitors the quality of the education and makes sure that regulations are followed.

Early Childhood Education and Care

Alongside the early childhood education and care organised by municipalities there are grant-aided independent preschools, preschool classes, school and leisuer-time centres. They have a different principal organiser/owner than the municipality or county council. Most preschools and school-age childcare is run by municipalities. The majority of children, 81 per cent, are enrolled in municipal preschools (7 208 preschools 2014) and the remaining 19 per cent in independently run preschools (2 655 preschools 2014). There were 3 626 municipal schools with preschool classes and 564 independeltly run in 2014.

Approval of grant-aided independent preschools operated by a company, association, foundation or private individual should be dealt with by the municipality where the education is to be provided. It is also the municipality that is responsible for the quality assurance of the preschool education. The Swedish Schools Inspectorate (Skolinspektionen) decide whether to approve applications from prospective grant-aided preschools, schools and leisure-time centres.

Compulsory Schools

Compulsory schools (grundskolor) can be run either by municipalities or independently in so called grant-aided independent schools (fristående skolor). Independent schools at compulsory level are funded by municipal grants from the pupils' home municipalities and by state grants, i.e. are grant-aided and free of charge. Grant-aided schools as a general rule are not allowed to charge fees. There were 4 845 compulsary schools in Sweden in the academic year 2014/15, of which 4 040 were municipal and 800 independent.

Sixteen per cent of the Swedish compulsory schools were grant-aided independent schools in the academic year 2014/15. Some grant-aided independent schools have specific orientation, including special teaching methods (Montessori or Waldorf/Steiner), a linguistic orientation, or are schools with a certain religious denomination or schools run by parents/guardians organisations or private companies. Grant-aided independent schools have to be approved by the Swedish Schools Inspectorate (Skolinspektionen). If the school does not comply with current regulations, the Schools Inspectorate can withdraw its permit. Conditions for approval include that the education provided fulfils the general goals of the compulsory school, that the school has at least 20 pupils (unless there are specific reasons why there should be fewer) and do not charge fees.

When approved the school is declared entitled to financial support; approved schools receive a grant from the home municipality of the pupils attending. Each municipality determines the amount to be granted for each pupil, taking into account the schools' commitments and pupils’ needs. The decisions should be based on the principles the municipality applies when allocating resources to municipal compulsory schools. If the establishment of an independently run school creates severe problems for the municipal schools in the municipality, the Schools Inspectorate can deny its right to financial support.

Grant-aided independent schools are obliged to grant their municipality insight into the school's activities. Under the Education Act (Skollagen) grant-aided independent schools should, in principle, be open to all pupils who are entitled to equivalent education within the public education system. Independently run schools should - like municipal schools - be based on democratic values and their activities should be governed by openness, tolerance and objectivity and be all-round in character. Within the framework of these requirements, an independently run school may have a denominational orientation.

Upper Secondary Schools

Parallel with the municipal upper secondary schools, there are grant-aided independent upper secondary schools. Independent grant-aided upper secondary schools have nation-wide recruitment and are not permitted to charge pupil’s fees, application fees, queuing or registration fees.

The majority of grant-aided independent schools at upper secondary level have a general orientation, but there are also schools with alternative pedagogical approaches. Grant-aided independent schools are required to follow the curriculum and the national syllabi. They are regulated in the Education Act (Skollagen) and in the Upper Secondary School Ordinance (Gymnasieförordningen). In 2014/15 there were 1 328 upper secondary schools, of which 859 were municipal and 452 grant-aided independent upper secondary schools.

Grant-aided independent upper secondary schools should be open to all pupils who are entitled to equivalent education within the public education system. The independently run schools should also fulfill any additional requirements decided by the government, i.e. on entrance conditions. A school that meets these conditions may be declared entitled to receive public funds by the Swedish School Inspectorate (Skolinspektionen), providing the school's activities do not have obvious negative consequences on the municipal school system in the municipality where the school is located, or in municipalities nearby.

In 1992 the reqiuirements on grant-aided independent schools changed and since then the number of independently run upper secondary schools has been increasing. In school year 2014/15, 452 out of a total of 1328 upper secondary schools were independent schools (34%), a figure which can be compared with 82 out of a total of 638 upper secondary schools in 1999 (13%). The supervision of grant-aided independent schools is carried out by the Swedish Schools Inspectorate (Skolinspektionen). Municipalities are entitled to scrutinise the activities of grant-aided independent schools.

When a pupil chooses to study at a grant-aided independent school the resources that would otherwise be allocated for its education in a municipal school will be redistributed to the grant-aided independent school. The pupils home municipality must pay a grant, determined on the same grounds as are applied by that municipality when distributing resources to its own schools for the same programme. In cases when the municipality doesn’t offer the programme in question, the payment to the schools is based on a national price list yearly settled by the Swedish National Agency for Education (Skolverket).

Swedish Association of Independant Schools (Friskolornas riksförbund)

Other Private Schools

International schools

There are seven international schools at compulsory level. The international schools have pupils who are resident in Sweden for shorter periods (children of diplomats, researchers etc), but can also admit other pupils. The international schools may apply for grants from the Swedish Schools Inspectorate (Skolinspektionen), and are permitted to charge reasonable fees. There are three international schools at upper secondary level.

Boarding schools

There are three boarding schools with national admissions which offer education primarily for children of foreign-based Swedish parents. Municipalities and private organisers can provide nation-wide boarding education. State grants are provided for pupils of foreign-based Swedish parents whilst home municipalities pay for other pupils using the same criteria as when allocating resources to the municipalities' own schools. Costs that are not covered by the state grant or by funds from municipalities may be covered by fees charged to pupils.

The Education Act (Skollagen)

The Swedish National Agency for Education (Skolverket)

The Swedish Schools Inspectorate (Skolinspektionen)