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Sweden:Higher Education Funding

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Overview Sweden

Contents

Sweden:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Sweden:Historical Development

Sweden:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Sweden:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Sweden:Political and Economic Situation

Sweden:Organisation and Governance

Sweden:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Sweden:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Sweden:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Sweden:Organisation of Private Education

Sweden:National Qualifications Framework

Sweden:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Sweden:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Sweden:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Sweden:Funding in Education

Sweden:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Sweden:Higher Education Funding

Sweden:Adult Education and Training Funding

Sweden:Early Childhood Education and Care

Sweden:Organisation of Programmes for Pre-Primary Education

Sweden:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Pre-Primary Education

Sweden:Assessment in Programmes for Pre-Primary Education

Sweden:Organisation of the Pre-Primary Class

Sweden:Teaching and Learning in the Pre-Primary Class

Sweden:Assessment in the Pre-Primary Class

Sweden:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Sweden:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Sweden:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Sweden:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Sweden:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Sweden:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Sweden:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Sweden:Organisation of Upper General and Vocational Secondary Education

Sweden:Teaching and Learning in Upper General and Vocational Secondary Education

Sweden:Assessment in Upper General and Vocational Secondary Education

Sweden:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Sweden:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Sweden:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Sweden:Higher Education

Sweden:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Sweden:First Cycle Programmes

Sweden:Bachelor

Sweden:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Sweden:Second Cycle Programmes

Sweden:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Sweden:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Sweden:Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Distribution of Responsibilities

Sweden:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Sweden:Main Providers

Sweden:Main Types of Provision

Sweden:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Sweden:Teachers and Education Staff

Sweden:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Sweden:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Sweden:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Sweden:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Management and Other Education Staff

Sweden:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Sweden:Management Staff for Higher Education

Sweden:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Sweden:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Quality Assurance

Sweden:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Sweden:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Educational Support and Guidance

Sweden:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Sweden:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Sweden:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Sweden:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Sweden:Mobility and Internationalisation

Sweden:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Mobility in Higher Education

Sweden:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Sweden:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Sweden:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Sweden:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Sweden:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Sweden:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Sweden:National Reforms in School Education

Sweden:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Sweden:National Reforms in Higher Education

Sweden:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Sweden:European Perspective

Sweden:Legislation

Sweden:Institutions

Sweden:Glossary

 

Funding

Higher education at universities and university colleges is financed directly from the state budget. When higher education institutions receive allocations from the Ministry of Education and Science (Utbildningsdepartementet) for undergraduate education they receive the goals and framework for the coming budget/calendar year. The goals stipulate:

  • Targets for certain courses in terms of number of degrees over a four-year period, as well as planning forecasts for a four-year period
  • Targets for the number of full time students in certain subject areas which are a national priority (at present in science and technology)
  • Maximum total remuneration, i.e. the maximum amount that may be generated by the number of full-time students and their performance for the budget year
  • Possible specific commitments that may require additional compensation

Final allocation of resources is dependent on the results achieved at each institution in terms of student numbers (converted to full-time annual student equivalents) as well as study performance (converted to annual performance). Higher education institutions are obliged to consider the special needs of students with physical disabilities. Each university and university college must set aside 0.3 per cent of its undergraduate grant for measures to assist students with physical disabilities. If the 0.3 percent is insufficient the institutions may apply for extra state subsidies.

Teachers at state universities and university colleges are appointed by the institutions and are state employees. Salaries at all institutions are individually negotiated between the staff member, the employer and a trade union.

Parallel with the state-funded institutions for higher education there are a number of independent institutions, of which some charge fees and have no grant-aid.

Contract education

Higher education institutions can tailor special education programmes commissioned by companies and organisations, i.e. contract education. This kind of training is offered in various forms and participants may be awarded credits and certificates. Contract education accounts for a relatively small part of higher education, however the demand is growing and many institutions are establishing special units for this purpose. Foreign government authorities, companies and organisations may sign education contracts with Swedish universities and university colleges. Such agreements are the responsibility of the respective institution.

Financial Autonomy and Control

Remuneration Amount

Prior to each budget year each higher education institution receives an appropriation with a maximum amount as well as compensation for specific extra commitments undertaken. The appropriation is preliminary since the final amount can be determined first at the end of the budget year when the actual achievements are presented to the Ministry of Education and Science in an annual report. An underachievement (too few students to reach the maximum remuneration) or an overachievement (more students than can be paid for within the maximum remuneration) up to +/- ten per cent of the maximum remuneration may be moved over to the next fiscal year.

The remuneration amount for annual students and for annual performance achievements is determined each year in a governmental approval document. The amount varies depending on education area, but within the same area of education the amount is the same irrespective of institution. The remuneration amount includes all costs for undergraduate higher education, including cost for premises, equipment and furnishings.

Reporting

The higher education institutions produce an annual report of their results as activities and financial outcomes for the budget year. Annual reports contain a profit and loss account, balance sheet, report on allocations and financial analysis, as well as results on the attainment of educational goals.

Fees within Public Higher Education

Higher education is free of charge; no tuition fees are levied on Swedish students. This means that higher education will remain free of charge for Swedish citizens and citizens of an EU/EEA state or Switzerland. Citizens of other countries ("third country students"), in contrast, pay a fee for their higher education as of the autumn term 2011. In parallel to the introduction of tuition fees for international students, two new scholarship programmes targeted at fee paying students have been introduced.

  • No fees for Swedish/EU/EFTA/EEA full time and part time students.
  • Other students pay fees since autumn 2011. Higher education institutions determine the size of the fees, based on the principle of full cost coverage.
  • As of 1 February 2015, Swedish/EU/EFTA/EEA full time and part time students can be subject to tuition fees when taking part in international collaborations if the fees do not go to the Swedish institution and do not relate to the part of the education organised by the Swedish institution.

Financial Support for Learners' Families

No specific benefits are available to parents of higher education students. For students with children there is a possibility to receive extra child allowance of about SEK 239 per week for two children.

Financial Support for Learners

Level of support and eligibility

Students who have been accepted by a university, university college or other post-secondary education and fulfil certain basic criteria have a right to student aid if they study at least half time, for at least three weeks. Student aid consists of two parts: a grant and a repayable loan. A student can choose to apply only for the grant. Under certain conditions a student may also be entitled to student aid for studies outside of Sweden. Under certain circumstances the student may also be eligible to a supplementary loan. The upper age limit for study support is 54 years. The National Board of Student Aid (Centrala studiestödsnämnden, CSN) is responsible for the allocation of financial support for studies and its repayment.

  • Grants of SEK 707/week for 40 weeks per year are universally available for full time students during six years. The maximum per year is SEK 28 280. Part-time students, studying at least 50 percent, are able to receive grants proportional to their pace of study. 71 percent of students received grants in the second half of the calendar year 2013. The number includes those who are entitled to as well as those who are not entitled to grants due to pace of study, age or because they have already received grants during six years.
  • Loans of SEK 1 780/week for 40 weeks per year are universally available for full time students during six years. The maximum per year is SEK 71 200. Part-time students, studying at least 50 percent, are able to receive loans proportional to their pace of study. 50 percent of students received loans in the second half of the calendar year 2013, the number includes those who are entitled to as well as those who are not entitled to loans due to pace of study, age or because they have already received loans during six years.
  • Students with children can receive an extra grant of about SEK 239 per week for two children.
  • It is also possible for some students to receive further supplementary loans and loans for additional costs in connection to their studies. This concerns, for example, students with necessary additional costs for double housing, travel, musical instruments, etc.
  • Students aged 25 or above may receive a supplementary loan. The supplementary loan is intended for those who earlier have had income from employment and aims to facilitate transition between work and studies.

Study assistance for studies at HEI:s abroad may be granted to Swedish citizens and certain foreign citizens who may be entitled to study assistance through their EU citizenship or the EEA agreement. The main principle is that study outcomes from earlier studies should be assessed for every new application for study allowances. A certain income is allowed without a reduction of the study allowance.

Repayment

Repayment of the study loan starts at the earliest in January six months after a student has graduated. The repayment period for the loan is normally 25 years or up to the year of the borrower's 60th birthday. The system is based on annuity loans, which means that the annual repayment increases by 2 per cent each year, as long as interest rates are unchanged. There is a ‘safety clause’ whereby the amount to be paid each year can be reduced, depending on the borrower’s solvency. In such cases the repayment amount is related to the borrower's income during the year in question. If the repayment is reduced one year, this means that the borrower will have to pay back a bigger amount the following years, since the loan still has to be paid back within 25 years.

The National Board of Student Aid (Centrala studiestödsnämnden, CSN)

Private Education

Parallel with the state-funded institutions for higher education there are a number of independent organisers of higher education, some grant-aided and some not. An independent institutions with governmental grants cannot charge tuition fees. There are some independent institutions that do not receive governmental grants; hence they are free to charge tuition fees. These institutions are classified as private.

The grant-aided independent institutions base their work on an agreement with the government, and are obliged to follow the statutes, ordinances and regulations relevant to the higher education sector. If a grant-aided independent institution is authorised to award qualifications, its students are entitled to receive financial support for their studies. Any grant-aided independent institution authorised to award higher education degrees is obliged to assist in the follow-up and evaluation of its programmes.