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Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

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Overview Spain

Contents

Spain:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Spain:Historical Development

Spain:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Spain:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Spain:Political and Economic Situation

Spain:Organisation and Governance

Spain:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Spain:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Spain:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Spain:Organisation of Private Education

Spain:National Qualifications Framework

Spain:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Spain:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Spain:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Spain:Funding in Education

Spain:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Spain:Higher Education Funding

Spain:Adult Education and Training Funding

Spain:Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Primary Education

Spain:Organisation of Primary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Spain:Assessment in Primary Education

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Spain:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Vocational Lower Secondary Education: Basic Vocational Training cycles

Spain:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Higher Education

Spain:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Spain:First Cycle Programmes

Spain:Bachelor

Spain:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Spain:Second Cycle Programmes

Spain:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Spain:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Spain:Adult Education and Training

Spain:Distribution of Responsibilities

Spain:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Spain:Main Providers

Spain:Main Types of Provision

Spain:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Spain:Teachers and Education Staff

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Management and Other Education Staff

Spain:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Spain:Management Staff for Higher Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Quality Assurance

Spain:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Educational Support and Guidance

Spain:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Spain:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Spain:Mobility and Internationalisation

Spain:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Mobility in Higher Education

Spain:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Spain:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Spain:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:National Reforms in School Education

Spain:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Spain:National Reforms in Higher Education

Spain:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Spain:European Perspective

Spain:Legislation

Spain:Institutions

Spain:Bibliography

Spain:Glossary

Curriculum of Bachillerato

Bachillerato is structured into three branches, comprises two years and its curriculum is organised into three sets of subjects: core subjects, specific subjects and subjects that are freely structured by the Autonomous Communities.

Curriculum refers to the regulation of the elements influencing the teaching and learning processes for each type of provision. It comprises the following elements:

  • objectives of each type of provision and educational stage
  • skills, or students’ abilities to implement the contents of each type of provision and educational stage in an integrated manner, in order to achieve a correct execution of activities and effective complex problem solving
  • contents, that is, the set of knowledge, abilities, skills and attitudes which contribute to the achievement of the objectives of each type of provision and educational stage as well as to the acquisition of the skills
  • teaching methodology, comprising the description of teaching practices as well as the organisation of teachers’ work
  • assessable learning standards and outcomes
  • criteria to assess the degree of acquisition of the skills and the achievement of the objectives of each type of provision and educational stage.

(2013 Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education).

The curriculum establishes the same key skills as in compulsory education:

  • linguistic communication
  • mathematical and basic skills in science and technology
  • digital.
  • learning to learn
  • social and civic
  • sense of initiative and entrepreneurship
  • cultural awareness and expression.

(In line with the Recommendation 2006/962/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006).

For skills to be efficiently acquired and effectively integrated into the curriculum, integrated learning activities that would allow students to move towards the acquisition of more than one skill at a time, as many of them overlap and interlock, must be designed. There is not a one-to-one relationship between the teaching of certain areas or subjects and the development of some specific skills. Each area or subject contributes to the development of different skills and each skill is in turn acquired through work in the various areas or subjects.

In order to ensure common training for all Bachillerato students, it is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport to design the basic curriculum, in order to guarantee that certificates are official and valid throughout the country. The education authorities complete the curriculum for their respective regions. For more information, see Administration and governance at central and/or regional level.

Education institutions also play an active role, developing and completing the curriculum in order to adapt it to their context and pupils. In addition, each teacher draws up the teaching plan for each class group. For more information, see Administration and governance at local and/or institutional level.

Structure

Bachillerato is flexibly organised in order to provide specialised training in line with the expectations and training interests of students, while enabling them to participate in working life once they have successfully completed it:

  • its branches are: Sciences, Humanities and Social Sciences, and Arts
  • the Humanities and Social Sciences branch has two pathways: Humanities and Social Sciences
  • the education authorities establish the conditions for students to be able to choose a different branch when progressing to the 2nd year.

Organisation of the 1st year of Bachillerato


Branches

Subjects

Core subjects 

Sciences

  • Philosophy
  • Spanish Language and Literature I
  • Mathematics I
  • First Foreign Language I

Students choose at least two:

  • Biology and Geology
  • Technical Drawing I
  • Physics and Chemistry

Humanities and Social Sciencess

  • Philosophy
  • Spanish Language and Literature I
  • First Foreign Language I
  • Latin I (Humanities pathway)
  • Mathematics Applied to Social Sciences I (Social Sciences pathway)

Students choose at least two:

  • Economics
  • Greek I
  • Contemporary World History
  • Universal Literature

Arts

  • Philosophy
  • Foundations of Art I
  • Spanish Language and Literature I
  • First Foreign Language I

Students choose at least two:

  • Audiovisual Culture I
  • Contemporary World History
  • Universal literature

Specific subjects

  • Physical Education

Students choose a minimum of two and a maximum of three:

  • Musical Analysis I
  • Applied Anatomy
  • Scientific Culture
  • Artistic Drawing I
  • Technical Drawing I (If it has not been chosen among core subjects)
  • Musical Language and Practice
  • Religion
  • Second Foreign Language I
  • Industrial Technology I
  • Information and Communication Technologies I
  • Volume
  • Any subject from the set of core subjects that has not been taken by the student

Subjects that are freely structured by the Autonomous Communities

  • Co-Official Language and Literature
  • Specific subjects that have not been taken by the student or areas to be determined
  • Subjects to extend the contents of some of the subjects from the sets of core or specific subjects.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of regulations.

Organisation of the 2nd year of Bachillerato


Branches

Subjects

Core subjects 

Sciences

  • Spanish History
  • Spanish Language and Literature II
  • Mathematics II
  • First Foreign Language II

Students choose at least two:

  • Biology
  • Technical Drawing II
  • Physics
  • Geology
  • Chemistry

Humanities and Social Sciences

  • Spanish History
  • Spanish Language and Literature II
  • First Foreign Language II
  • Latin II (Humanities pathway)
  • Mathematics Applied to Social Sciences II (Social Sciences pathway)

Students choose at least two:

  • Business Economics
  • Geography
  • Greek II
  • History of Art
  • History of Philosophy

Arts

  • Spanish History
  • Foundations of Art II
  • Spanish Language and Literature II
  • First Foreign Language II

Students choose at least two:

  • Performing Arts
  • Audiovisual Culture II
  • Design

Specific subjects

Students choose a minimum of two and a maximum of three:

  • Musical Analysis II
  • Earth and Environmental Sciences
  • Artistic Drawing II
  • Technical Drawing II (If it has not been chosen among core subjects)
  • Foundations of Administration and Management
  • History of Philosophy (If it has not been chosen among core subjects)
  • History of Music and Dance
  • Image and Sound
  • Psychology
  • Religion
  • Second Foreign Language II
  • Graphic and Plastic Expression Techniques
  • Industrial Technology II
  • Information and Communication Technologies II
  • Any subject from the set of core subjects that has not been taken by the student

Subjects that are freely structured by the Autonomous Communities

  • Co-Official Language and Literature
  • Physical Education
  • Specific subjects that have not been taken by the student or areas to be determined
  • Subjects to extend the contents of some of the subjects from the sets of core or specific subjects.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of regulations.

The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport is responsible for setting the minimum number of teaching hours corresponding to the set of core subjects for the different years of Bachillerato, which cannot be less than 50% of the total number of teaching hours established by each education authority. Possible extensions of school hours which might be established are not taken into account.

The education authorities must encourage and promote the autonomy of educational institutions, which are responsible for developing and completing the curriculum. They also establish the linguistic models organising the teaching of the official languages in their regions. In any case, students have to take the relevant Co-Official Language and Literature within the set of subjects thar are freely structured by the Autonomous Communities. For more information, see Population: demographic situation, languages and religions.

Teaching methods and materials

The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport establishes the general principles which must guide the teaching practice in Bachillerato:

  • the educational activities in Bachillerato must foster students’ abilities to learn independently, work in teams and apply appropriate research methods
  • the education authorities formulate a series of methodological principles which are valid for all the subjects of the stage and promote the necessary measures in the different subjects to encourage and develop students’ reading as well as their ability to express themselves properly in public
  • regarding the optional subject of Information and Communication Technologies, the education authorities are responsible for providing schools with the necessary infrastructure to ensure their implementation in the educational processes
  • according to the pedagogic principles described and within their pedagogic autonomy, schools may define the teaching methods used in the classroom. In addition, they decide on curricular materials and teaching resources
  • each teacher has the freedom to make his or her own methodological decisions, which must respect those agreed upon at a school level and with what has been established by the corresponding education authorities.

Characteristics of textbooks and teaching materials:

  • they do not require the previous authorisation of the education authorities
  • they must be adapted to the scientific rigour adequate for the pupils’ age group and to the approved curriculum set by the Autonomous Community
  • they must reflect and promote the respect to the constitutional principles, values, freedoms, rights and obligations that are found in current educational legislation and in the Act on Comprehensive Protection Measures Against Gender-Based Violence to which all educational activities must conform
  • their supervision constitutes a part of the ordinary process in the inspection that the education authority carries out over the totality of the elements that integrate the teaching and learning process.

The selection of textbooks follows a series of directives in all educational institutions:

  • Pedagogic Commission for Coordination in each educational institution: it prepares a report on all the textbooks that they consider the most appropriate
  • School Council of the educational institution and Teachers’ Assembly: they supervise the report of the Commission
  • teachers: they are responsible for the final decision on the textbooks to be used
  • if the School Council does not agree with the teachers’ choice of textbooks, it may provide its own suggestions to the Teachers’ Assembly so that they may also be considered.

Families are expected to purchase the textbooks and school materials. The education authorities announce grants and financial assistance for post-compulsory education students, including Bachillerato students, in order to contribute to cover this expense. For more information, see Early Childhood and School Education Funding.

Pupils’ homework outside school hours is not regulated in any official document; it is up to each teacher to organise it.