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Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Spain

Contents

Spain:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Spain:Historical Development

Spain:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Spain:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Spain:Political and Economic Situation

Spain:Organisation and Governance

Spain:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Spain:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Spain:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Spain:Organisation of Private Education

Spain:National Qualifications Framework

Spain:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Spain:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Spain:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Spain:Funding in Education

Spain:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Spain:Higher Education Funding

Spain:Adult Education and Training Funding

Spain:Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Primary Education

Spain:Organisation of Primary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Spain:Assessment in Primary Education

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Spain:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Vocational Lower Secondary Education: Basic Vocational Training cycles

Spain:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Higher Education

Spain:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Spain:First Cycle Programmes

Spain:Bachelor

Spain:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Spain:Second Cycle Programmes

Spain:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Spain:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Spain:Adult Education and Training

Spain:Distribution of Responsibilities

Spain:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Spain:Main Providers

Spain:Main Types of Provision

Spain:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Spain:Teachers and Education Staff

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Management and Other Education Staff

Spain:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Spain:Management Staff for Higher Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Quality Assurance

Spain:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Educational Support and Guidance

Spain:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Spain:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Spain:Mobility and Internationalisation

Spain:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Mobility in Higher Education

Spain:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Spain:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Spain:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:National Reforms in School Education

Spain:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Spain:National Reforms in Higher Education

Spain:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Spain:European Perspective

Spain:Legislation

Spain:Institutions

Spain:Bibliography

Spain:Glossary

Definition of the Target Group(s)

The 2006 Education Act and the 2013 Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education, modifying it, establish that the people or groups and territorial fields in disabled situations due to social, economic, cultural, geographical, ethnic or other kind of factors must be the target of compensatory actions since, due to these factors, students can have a meaningful achievement gap and/or difficulties in adapting to the school.

Specific Support Measures

With the purpose of applying the principle of equality in the exercise of the right to Education, the Education Authorities provide with the economic resources and the necessary support for developing compensatory actions which will prevent future inequalities among students.

The adjustments implied in the Education System are a part of the continuous attention to diversity measures developed in the schools. For this reason, most of the measures for attending students' education needs in mainstream education can respond disadvantaged students. For detailed information on these measures see  article Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education. In adition, they have other kind of specific actions.

The actions aimed at disadvantaged students are implemented in every Autonomous Community and they are regulated through the curricular organisation for Primary and Secondary Education. Some Education Authorities also develop specific regulations on this field, both at general level and regarding a specific group. The actions are the following:

School attendance 

  • Measures aimed at assuring the most suitable conditions for attending school in Pre-Primary Education. To this end, free education in the second cycle of Pre-Primary Education is established, and the gradual increase of publicly-funded places is promoted, so as to raise the rate of students attending school.  
  • Provision of schools with human and material resources in order to compensate the situation of disadvantaged students. When the students have achievement gap and are at risk of education exclusion, they receive curricular support from specialised teachers. It can be present in different modalities, from the support to the instrumental areas or subjects, within or without the classes, to the establishment of specific groups or classes for students with serious school adaptation problems. Likewise, when the students with these characteristics attend school it is possible to reduce the size of the class group.
  • Preventive and compensatory actions. The schools where disadvantaged students attend develop compensatory education plans including actions for taking advantage of the resources of the environment, such as the intercultural mediation services or the opening of school libraries out of school hours. They also establish programmes against school absenteeism, mainly aimed at specific groups.

Scholarships and study grants

Students with disadvantaged economic conditions have the right to obtain study grants and scholarships. The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport establishes, funded under the State General Budget, a general grants system for covering the expenses of  travelling, urban transport, residence, teaching material and tax exemption and grants and helps for compensating the lack of work income. Also other grants modalities are established, such as grants for young people at risk of dropping out the education system to continue their studies.

For detailed information on school grants and scholarships see article Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Equal opportunities in rural world 

The regional Education Authorities are in charge of establishing the organisation and the necessary means for attending school needs of pupils in rural world. In some areas where pupils attend schools near their municipality of residence in order to guarantee the quality of education. In these cases, the Education Authority provides free-cost transport, canteen or boarding school services.

Also, the schools spread out in nearby municipalities with small settlements group together making up one single school in organisational terms, allowing the students to stay in their town of origin. In these schools there are some itinerant teachers covering the specialities foreseen in the regulations. They have one single leadership teams and their teachers assembly is made up by all the school teachers attending the different schools that compose it. In addition, the Yearly General Programme and the school development plan are similar for every gathered schools.

For detailed information, see articles Organisational variations and alternative structures in early childhood education and care and Organisational variations and alternative structures in primary education.

Organisational alternatives for itinerant students

Due to families' itinerant work (circus workers, carnival workers, pickers or similar), there are students who cannot attend school regularly. The regional Education Authorities implement some measures assuring that they will attend school, such as the establishment of supportive itinerant units, schooling programmes and education support to those students coming from seasonal groups, and the provision of a permanent school teacher, which is provided with all the teaching basic resources.

The children of agricultural seasonal workers can attend both schools of the host area, which are supported by the teaching staff and prefabricated classrooms with teachers from the programme of compensatory education during the months that the job last, creating on this manner a minimum services infrastructure in the area of residence.

Organisational alternatives for hospitalised students

The Autonomous Communities organise different alternatives making possible Education outside school (services, institutions and special units) for those students who cannot attend school under medical prescription and for those students hospitalised for a long period.

For detailed information on itinerant and hospitalised students, see section Itinerancy and non-regular schooling.