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Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Spain

Contents

Spain:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Spain:Historical Development

Spain:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Spain:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Spain:Political and Economic Situation

Spain:Organisation and Governance

Spain:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Spain:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Spain:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Spain:Organisation of Private Education

Spain:National Qualifications Framework

Spain:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Spain:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Spain:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Spain:Funding in Education

Spain:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Spain:Higher Education Funding

Spain:Adult Education and Training Funding

Spain:Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Primary Education

Spain:Organisation of Primary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Spain:Assessment in Primary Education

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Spain:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Vocational Lower Secondary Education: Basic Vocational Training cycles

Spain:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Higher Education

Spain:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Spain:First Cycle Programmes

Spain:Bachelor

Spain:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Spain:Second Cycle Programmes

Spain:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Spain:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Spain:Adult Education and Training

Spain:Distribution of Responsibilities

Spain:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Spain:Main Providers

Spain:Main Types of Provision

Spain:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Spain:Teachers and Education Staff

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Management and Other Education Staff

Spain:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Spain:Management Staff for Higher Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Quality Assurance

Spain:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Educational Support and Guidance

Spain:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Spain:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Spain:Mobility and Internationalisation

Spain:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Mobility in Higher Education

Spain:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Spain:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Spain:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:National Reforms in School Education

Spain:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Spain:National Reforms in Higher Education

Spain:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Spain:European Perspective

Spain:Legislation

Spain:Institutions

Spain:Bibliography

Spain:Glossary

Global and intercultural dimension in curriculum development

Pre-primary education

In the stage of pre-primary education, the education authorities highlight the importance of promoting early initiation in a foreign language, especially in the last year of the second cycle.

In addition, the educational treatment of cultural and ethnic differences is also taken into consideration in both cycles of the stage. The presence of distinctive personal features, arising from gender or social or cultural origin, must be used by teachers as a tool to cater for diversity, fostering a climate of positive relationships based on respect and acceptance of differences.

In the second cycle, these contents are covered in a subject dealing with natural and social sciences called Knowledge of the Environment.   

Primary education

The 2006 Education Act and the 2013 Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education, modifying it, are the basic rules currently governing the educational provision of the Spanish education system. The new Act was published in the Spanish Official Gazette of 10/12/2013 and began to be implemented the 2014/15 academic year.

In the case of primary education, the implementation of the new Act is completed this academic year 2015/16, so the different years of this stage are already regulated by the new basic curriculum. The new curriculum uses the term proposed by the 2006 European Recommendation, ‘key skills’, which include the social and civic skill. This skill is the one that addresses the European and international dimension of education more directly.

For detailed information on the basic skills of the Education Act and the key skills of the Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education, see article Primary education.

Several subjects taught during this stage include contents which draw attention to the importance of being familiar with the structure, functions and mechanisms for the participation of citizens in European institutions, the relevance of the construction of a common European identity, and the encouragement of positive attitudes towards solidarity, participation and democracy. These curricular areas are Social Sciences and Social and Civic Values.

The international dimension of education also plays an important role in the curricular area of Foreign Languages during primary education. Thus, the curriculum design for this area has used the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CERF), of the Council of Europe, as a basic reference.

Compulsory secondary education

In accordance with the implementation calendar, the Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education modifies compulsory secondary education in the 1st and 3rd years this academic year 2015/16. In the 2nd and 4th years, the educational provision established by the Education Act is maintained until the educational reform is completed in 2016/17.

The Education Act establishes that the social and citizen skill is one of the basic skills that students must have acquired at the end of the stage. The basic curriculum for compulsory secondary education developed by the Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education also uses the term ‘key skills’ and reorganises the previous skills into seven key skills, including the social and civic skill. These two are the skills which address the European and international dimension of education more directly.

Some of the subjects taught at this stage contribute to the international dimension of the curriculum. They are the following:

  • Geography and History, Language and Literature (Spanish and the relevant co-official language), and Latin in those years of the stage where the educational reform is being implemented
  • Social Sciences, Geography and History, Citizenship Education and Human Rights, Ethical and Civic Education, Language and Literature (Spanish and the relevant co-official language) and Latin in those years where the Education Act is still in force.

These subjects include contents related to geography, politics and economy in Europe; the role of international bodies and the principles underlying the structure and operation of the European Union (EU); interpersonal relationships based on freedom and responsibility, rejecting violence and respecting the dignity of others; literary works from the most representative European and Spanish-speaking authors; and the common features and language diversity of European peoples.

As in primary education, the area of Foreign Languages makes a significant contribution to the European and international dimension of education. 

Bachillerato

In accordance with the implementation calendar, the Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education modifies the 1st year of Bachillerato this academic year 2015/16. In the 2nd year, the educational provision established by the Education Act is maintained until the educational reform is completed in 2016/17.

Among common subjects and those which are specific to each Bachillerato branch, the ones that address the European and international dimension more directly are the following:

  • Contemporary World History, Foundations of Art, Universal History and Latin in the 1st year, where the educational reform is being implemented.
  • History of Spain, Geography, Contemporary World History, Economy, Art History, Music and Dance History and Universal Literature in the 2nd year, where the Education Act in still in force.

Among the contents found in some of these subjects, the following deserve special attention: the role of Spain in the European and world context; the historical, economic, political, social and cultural aspects which place Spain in the European and world context; and currents, authors and most representative literary and artistic works in Europe and the rest of the world.

In Bachillerato, as well as in primary and compulsory secondary education, the area of Foreign Languages makes a special contribution to the European and international dimension of education.

Vocational training

One of the basic principles regulating intermediate vocational training is the adjustment of training and qualifications to the criteria proposed by the EU. As a result, learning of the languages of the Member States is one of the priority training areas.

Within the curriculum of the different branches of vocational training, the vocational modules which structure the programme for Marketing and Commerce, and especially those oriented towards international commerce and finances, are the ones which focus more specifically on the international and European dimension of education. In these modules, students learn how to carry out international market studies, analyse the distribution channels in export markets, organise the international activity of firms and interpret the international contractual legislation which regulates buying and selling operations. In addition, these modules allow learners to learn about international economic structure, Spanish international commerce, economic features of the EU and other countries, international and regional bodies, multinational firms, international funding, foreign exchange markets and international credit management.

Partnerships and networks

The aim of the Erasmus+ Programme is to strengthen the European dimension by promoting mobility and cooperation between educational institutions. To that end, the Programme introduces new ways to connect educational institutions through its Key Action 2: Cooperation for Innovation and the Exchange of Good Practices.

The new networks where students and staff of pre-primary, primary and secondary education may participate are Strategic Partnerships, Capacity Building Projects and Sector Skills Alliances. For detailed information on Strategic Partnerships and Capacity Building Projects, see article Other dimensions of internationalisation in adult education and training

Sector Skills Alliances are targeted towards the field of VET and aim at tackling skills gaps, enhancing the responsiveness of initial and continuing VET systems to sector-specific labour market needs and demand for new skills. These alliances comprise different organisations established in Programme or Partner countries. They can be of three types:

  • Public or private entities that provide VET.
  • Public or private entities that have sector specific expertise and represent a given sector.
  • Public or private entities that have a regulatory function for education and training systems at local, regional or national level.

The actions carried out under these Alliances consist of delivering joint curricula based on the skills needs identified in a given sector, and their duration is 2-3 years.

The eTwining Project, also dependent on the Spanish Service for the Internationalisation fo Education, is a supplementary action of the Erasmus+ Programme which is open for participation to professionals working in pre-primary, primary and secondary education, of, at least, two European countries. Its main goal is to promote and facilitate contact, the exchange of ideas and partnerships between teachers and students of participant countries through the use of information and communication technologies. The duration of eTwining Projects is not limited.