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Spain:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Spain

Contents

Spain:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Spain:Historical Development

Spain:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Spain:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Spain:Political and Economic Situation

Spain:Organisation and Governance

Spain:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Spain:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Spain:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Spain:Organisation of Private Education

Spain:National Qualifications Framework

Spain:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Spain:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Spain:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Spain:Funding in Education

Spain:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Spain:Higher Education Funding

Spain:Adult Education and Training Funding

Spain:Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Primary Education

Spain:Organisation of Primary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Spain:Assessment in Primary Education

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Spain:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Vocational Lower Secondary Education: Basic Vocational Training cycles

Spain:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Higher Education

Spain:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Spain:First Cycle Programmes

Spain:Bachelor

Spain:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Spain:Second Cycle Programmes

Spain:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Spain:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Spain:Adult Education and Training

Spain:Distribution of Responsibilities

Spain:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Spain:Main Providers

Spain:Main Types of Provision

Spain:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Spain:Teachers and Education Staff

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Management and Other Education Staff

Spain:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Spain:Management Staff for Higher Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Quality Assurance

Spain:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Educational Support and Guidance

Spain:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Spain:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Spain:Mobility and Internationalisation

Spain:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Mobility in Higher Education

Spain:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Spain:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Spain:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:National Reforms in School Education

Spain:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Spain:National Reforms in Higher Education

Spain:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Spain:European Perspective

Spain:Legislation

Spain:Institutions

Spain:Bibliography

Spain:Glossary

Pupil and student mobility

The Spanish education system is committed to the development of policies, strategies and actions promoting student mobility. The 2006 Education Act expresses in its preamble the need to increase mobility and exchanges, with the aim of opening up education systems to the wider world.

Student mobility programmes are part of the educational actions of the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Commission. In Spain, these programmes are managed by the Spanish Service for the Internationalisation of Education (SEPIE).

Mobility grants and financial support promoted by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport through the Spanish National Agency for European Educational Programmes are mainly aimed at secondary education students, although applications must be presented by the school; beneficiaries cannot apply directly for a grant.

The actions of the Erasmus+ Programme include Strategic Partnerships, which involve three or more schools or educational institutions from different Programme countries. In some cases, mobility actions for students, which must be related to the specific topics of the Strategic Partnership and contribute to the achievement of its objectives, are developed within these Partnerships.

An important innovation introduced in the new Erasmus+ Programme compared to the previous Lifelong Learning Programme is that some of the new partnership networks allow for the participation of students and staff of all educational levels. Therefore, Strategic Partnerships may involve pre-primary, primary and secondary education schools, as well as higher education and adult education institutions. For detailed information on Strategic Partnerships, see article Other dimensions of internationalisation in adult education and training.

The main grants and financial support are described below:

ERASMUS+ MOBILITY ACTIONS WITHIN STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS
Name
Joint project work of groups of school pupils
Blended mobility
Long-term study mobility of pupils (secondary education)
Purpose
Work together on topics of mutual interest related to the Strategic Partnership.
Combine one or more short periods of physical mobility with virtual mobility through the use of information and communication technologies to complement or prolong the learning outcomes of physical mobility.
Spend a school year, or part of it, in a receiving school abroad.
Destination
A school involved in a Strategic Partnership with the school of origin.
Target groups
Primary or secondary education students.
Students of any educational level.
Pupils aged at least 14 enrolled full-time in a school participating in the Strategic Partnership.
Duration
5 days to 2 months.
Up to 2 months in total.
2 to 12 months.
Funding
It depends on the specific characteristics of each activity, but covers participants’ travel and subsistence expenses (including accompanying persons), as well as the expenses derived from organisational matters and other costs linked to the linguistic or special needs support offered to participants.
Responsible body
Spanish Service for the Internationalisation of Education.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of the call.

ERASMUS+ VET LEARNERS TRAINEESHIPS (VET)1
Purpose
Support transnational mobility through traineeships in another European Union (EU) country.
Destination
Participants carry out their mobility activity in another Erasmus + Programme country.
Target groups
VET students or recent graduates of a VET school. The latter must undertake their training placement abroad within one year of their graduation.
Participating organisations
A VET organisation, as well as any public or private organisation active in the labour market or in the fields of education, training and youth (enterprises, chambers of commerce, public bodies, research institutes, etc.).
Duration
From 2 weeks to 12 months.
Funding
  • For organisations: Financial support to cover management expenses (linguistic, pedagogical or intercultural preparation, validation of learning outcomes, monitoring and support of participants).
  • For participants: Individual financial support to cover travel, accommodation and subsistence expenses, as well as the costs linked to the linguistic support (prior to departure or during the activity) offered to participants. Additional costs directly related to participants with special needs or to support learners with fewer opportunities will also be covered.
Certification
Official certificate that records the knowledge acquired.
Responsible body
Spanish Service for the Internationalisation of Education.

1 These mobility actions, together with those for VET staff, which are described in the following section, make up the Mobility Projects for VET Learners and Staff. These mobility projects can comprise one or more actions, that is, a project can be comprised of mobility actions for VET learners or teaching/training assignments and/or staff training for VET staff.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of the call.

All participants are covered by an insurance taken out by the project organisers and should be in possession of the European Health Insurance Card, if the destination country is in territory of the EU, the European Economic Area (EEA) or Switzerland.

Some Autonomous Communities have their own programmes for the international mobility of school students.

Teacher mobility

Encouraging lifelong learning has become a priority in all EU countries. That is why making lifelong learning and mobility a reality is a strategic objective of European educational policies.

The commitment of the Spanish education system is not limited to the promotion of student mobility, but it also develops educational policies and actions promoting teacher mobility through different initiatives.

Teacher mobility programmes can be European or national. Within the five actions described below, the first three are European, two of which are part of the Erasmus+ Programme. The last two actions are national initiatives promoted by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport.

PESTALOZZI PROGRAMME OF THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE
Purpose Enrich the professional experience and broaden the cultural horizons of educators, support the sharing of ideas, information and teaching materials, and build networks among educators from different countries though their participation in workshops and seminars.
Destination
  •  Any of the member States of the Council of Europe. 
  •  In the case of European seminars, at the Academy of Bad Wildbad, in Germany, and at the European Wergeland Centre, in Norway.
Target groups Teachers and experts of non-university levels who are working on issues related to the workshops and seminars being applied for.
Requirements
  • Be in service.
  • Knowledge of the working language, proved by the relevant certificate.
  • Candidates can only participate in the Programme in a 2-year period.
Duration

Continuing professional development workshops and seminars: 3-5 days.

European seminars: 1 week.

Funding

Assistance to cover travel costs, tuition fees and accommodation and subsistence expenses.

The participation costs of selected teachers are borne by the Council of Europe and the country organising the training activities.

Health coverage

Participants will be covered by an insurance paid by the Council of Europe.

The European Health Insurance Card provides health coverage in accordance with the legislation of the destination country, taking into account the nature of the benefits and the length of the stay, if it is in territory of the EU, the EEA or Switzerland. If the destination is a different country, they are required to have a health insurance plan which is valid in the host country.

Certification Certificate of attendance indicating the length (hours) of the workshop/seminar co-signed by the Council of Europe and the Spanish Service for the Internationalisation of Education or the coordinator of the workshop/seminar.
Responsible body Council of Europe and Spanish Service for the Internationalisation of Education.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of the call.

Pre-primary, primary and secondary education as well as VET staff can also have access to the mobility actions of the Erasmus+ Programme. However, participants cannot apply directly; it is educational institutions that are in charge of applying for grants by presenting a mobility project. Once the grant has been awarded, the selection of staff is carried out by institutions through a transparent, coherent and documented procedure.

ERASMUS+ MOBILITY PROJECTS FOR SCHOOL EDUCATION STAFF (PRE-PRIMARY, PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION)
Actions
  • Teaching assignments: This activity allows teachers or other school education staff to teach at a partner school abroad.
  • Staff training: The aim of this activity is to support the professional development of teachers, school leaders or other school education staff. The activity can take two forms: participation in structured courses or training events abroad, or an observation period abroad in a partner school or another relevant organisation active in the field of school education.
Destination
Participants carry out their mobility activity in another Erasmus + Programme country.
Target groups
Staff in charge of school education (teaching and non-teaching, including school heads) working in the sending school, as well as other educational staff (school inspectors, school counsellors or psychologists) involved in the strategic development of the sending school.
Participating organisations
The sending organisation must be a school (pre-primary, primary or secondary education). The receiving organisation can be any public or private organisation established active in the labour market or in the fields of education, training and youth, such as a VET educational centre, a higher education institution, an enterprise, a public body, etc.
Duration
From 2 days to 2 months, excluding travel time.
Funding
  • For organisations: Financial support to cover management expenses (linguistic, pedagogical or intercultural preparation, validation of learning outcomes, monitoring and support of participants).
  • For participants: Individual financial support to cover travel, accommodation and subsistence expenses, as well as the costs of training activities. Additional costs directly related to participants with special needs will also be covered.
Certification
Accreditation of the training credits earned.
Responsible body
Spanish Service for the Internationalisation of Education.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of the call.

There are other opportunities for teacher mobility within Strategic Partnerships. Depending on the specific action, they may consist of teaching and training assignments, of varying duration. For detailed information on these agreements, see article Other dimensions of internationalisation in adult education and training.

ERASMUS+ MOBILITY ACTIONS FOR VET STAFF (VET)1
Actions
  • Teaching/training assignments: This activity allows staff of VET schools to teach at a partner VET school abroad. It also allows staff of enterprises to provide training at a VET organisation abroad.
  • Staff training: The aim of this activity is to support the professional development of VET staff through a work placement or observation period abroad in an enterprise or VET organisation.
Destination
Participants carry out their mobility activity in another Erasmus + Programme country.
Target groups
Staff in charge of VET or persons from enterprises, depending on the action.
Duration
From 2 days to 2 months, excluding travel time.
Funding
  • For organisations: Financial support to cover management expenses (linguistic, pedagogical or intercultural preparation, validation of learning outcomes, monitoring and support of participants).
  • For participants: Individual financial support to cover travel, accommodation and subsistence expenses, as well as the costs linked to the linguistic support (prior to departure or during the activity) offered to participants. Additional costs directly related to participants with special needs or to support learners with fewer opportunities will also be covered.
Certification
Accreditation of the training credits earned.
Responsible body
Spanish Service for the Internationalisation of Education.

1 These mobility actions, together with those for VET staff, which are described in the following section, make up the Mobility Projects for VET Learners and Staff. These mobility projects can comprise one or more actions, that is, a project can be comprised of mobility actions for VET learners or teaching/training assignments and/or staff training for VET staff.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of the call.

All participants are covered by an insurance taken out by the project organisers and should be in possession of the European Health Insurance Card, if the destination country is in territory of the EU, the EEA or Switzerland.

At national level, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport promotes other actions for the mobility of teachers:

GOVERNMENT-EMPLOYED TEACHERS ABROAD
Purpose Assign teaching positions abroad on the basis of merit.
Destination Depending on the call.
Target groups Government-employed teachers in service.
Requirements
  •   A minimum of 3 years of service as a government-employed teacher.
  •   Knowledge of the language specified in the call, depending on the position.
Duration A 2-year period, which can be extended, up to a maximum of 6.
Funding

- Equalisation of purchasing power: It takes into account exchange rate variations of the relevant reference currency. There are two types, depending on whether they pay their housing costs or not. 

- Quality of life: It depends on factors such as distance, climate, insalubrity, lack of communications, violence or war situation, citizen insecurity, or others, which may decrease their quality of life.

  • They may receive compensation payments on account of service.
  • Teachers in European Schools receive their remuneration and are reimbursed for departure and installation expenses from these Schools; other benefits are established in the Statute of Teachers of European Schools.
Health coverage

Government-employed teachers abroad who are affiliated to MUFACE (the General Mutual Insurance Society for Civil Servants), as well as its beneficiaries, have insurance through an agreement this Society signs with an insurance company.

In the case of teachers in European Schools, healthcare is covered by the Schools themselves, in accordance with their Statute.

Teachers in the General Social Security Scheme, as well as its beneficiaries, who are travelling to countries of the EU, the EEA or Switzerland must be in possession of the European Health Insurance Card.

Certification It will be reflected in the teacher’s service record.
Responsible body Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of the call.

PROFESSIONAL STAYS
Purpose Improve the quality of teacher training, promote innovation, adopt more effective teaching methods, create professional communities at the EU level or participate in them, as well as encourage foreign language learning and promote professional and cultural exchanges between the education systems.
Destination Educational institutions in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Target groups Pre-primary, primary and secondary education teachers.
Requirements
  • Be a civil servant.
  • Teach the language of the country being applied for or other subjects through that language.
  • Provide evidence of B2-level language skills in the language of the country being applied for.
  • Not have been a beneficiary of the Programme in the last two calls.
Duration 2 weeks in the host country and institution.
Funding

During the visit, they will retain their rights as civil servants, receiving the corresponding remuneration.

In addition, they will receive EUR 1 200 to cover the costs of accommodation and subsistence, as well as travel expenses.

Health coverage The European Health Insurance Card provides health coverage in accordance with the legislation of the destination country, taking into account the nature of the benefits and the length of the stay, if it is in territory of the EU, the EEA or Switzerland. If the destination is a different country, they are required to have a health insurance plan which is valid in the host country.
Certification Certificate, accreditation of the training credits earned.
Responsible body Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of the call.