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Spain:Management and Other Education Staff

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Overview Spain

Contents

Spain:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Spain:Historical Development

Spain:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Spain:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Spain:Political and Economic Situation

Spain:Organisation and Governance

Spain:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Spain:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Spain:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Spain:Organisation of Private Education

Spain:National Qualifications Framework

Spain:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Spain:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Spain:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Spain:Funding in Education

Spain:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Spain:Higher Education Funding

Spain:Adult Education and Training Funding

Spain:Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Primary Education

Spain:Organisation of Primary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Spain:Assessment in Primary Education

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Spain:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Vocational Lower Secondary Education: Basic Vocational Training cycles

Spain:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Higher Education

Spain:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Spain:First Cycle Programmes

Spain:Bachelor

Spain:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Spain:Second Cycle Programmes

Spain:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Spain:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Spain:Adult Education and Training

Spain:Distribution of Responsibilities

Spain:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Spain:Main Providers

Spain:Main Types of Provision

Spain:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Spain:Teachers and Education Staff

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Management and Other Education Staff

Spain:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Spain:Management Staff for Higher Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Quality Assurance

Spain:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Educational Support and Guidance

Spain:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Spain:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Spain:Mobility and Internationalisation

Spain:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Mobility in Higher Education

Spain:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Spain:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Spain:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:National Reforms in School Education

Spain:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Spain:National Reforms in Higher Education

Spain:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Spain:European Perspective

Spain:Legislation

Spain:Institutions

Spain:Bibliography

Spain:Glossary

Management staff

The Spanish education system is currently undergoing a reform process. The Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education, which was published in December 2013 and has already begun to be implemented this academic year 2014/15, modifies certain aspects of the 2006 Education Act. Both Acts constitute the legal framework regulating the general organisation of the education system.

Both Acts pay special attention to the autonomy of educational institutions, both as regards the pedagogical and curricular organisation and the management of resources and drawing up of their internal rules and operation. They also establish that the Education Authorities should promote the exercise of headships in schools through the adoption of measures to improve the performance of its leadership teams.

The two Acts regulate the main aspects related to the management of public educational institutions: the competences of the school head, the procedure for the selection of heads, their appointment and dismissal and the recognition of the management function. However, it is up to the Education Authorities, within their respective scope, to regulate, apart from the aspects just mentioned, the functioning of governing bodies and teacher coordination, as for the management team in public educational institutions.

Non-university public institutions have two mixed-membership governing bodies (the School Council and the Teachers’ Assembly) and a management team (made up of the headteacher, the head of studies and the secretary), who are responsible for carrying out the tasks related to administration, financial management and pedagogical organisation. For more information on governance and administration see the article on Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level.

The members of the leadership team are civil servant teachers, meaning that their previous initial training is similar to that of the rest of the body of civil servant teachers.

The working conditions of the governing bodies of both non-university and/or university studies, as for the rest of civil servants, are regulated and dictated by the State’s own normative and by the different Educational Authorities, as for the basic applicable legislation to all civil servants of the Public Authorities.

For detailed information on the initial teacher training and the working conditions of the members of the leadership team of non-university and university institutions please see the chapter Teachers and Educational Staff.

In publicly-funded private schools, the compulsory governance structures are the head teacher, the School Council and the Teacher’s Assembly. By contrast, private schools have the autonomy to determine their organisation, making them free to establish their own governance structures and the participation that they consider most appropriate. For detailed information on the see the article on the Organisation of Private Education.

In publicly-funded universities, the exercise of the administrative functions, economic governance and the organisation of teaching corresponds to the different governing bodies of the universities. The basic principle of their organisation is the participation in all the sectors involved in taking in, especially the collegiate bodies, the different sectors that make up the university community: teaching staff, students and clerical and service staff.

According to the 2007 Organic Act modifying the Organic Act on Universities (LOMLOU), the statutes of each university must establish, at least, the following governing bodies:

  • Mixed-membership bodies: Social Council, Governing Council, University Assembly, Faculty and University School Boards and a Department Council.
  • Individual bodies: A rector, deputy rectors, a secretary general, a manager, a faculty dean, heads of university schools, departments and university research institutes.

Out of them, the Governing Council, led by the rector, is the maximum collegiate organ of the university government.

For detailed information on private university government please see the article on Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level.

Private universities determine the governing bodies in their rules of organisation and operation. The names of the individual bodies are identical to those established for public universities. For detailed information on private university government see the article on Organisation of Private Education.

Staff involved in monitoring and control

The Constitution entrusted the inspection of the education system to the Public Authorities, the High Inspection Service to the State, the Education Inspection Services to the Governments of the Autonomous Communities, and the Services' Inspection to the universities.

In line with this principle, the Education Act (LOE) considers the Education Inspection as one of the factors which contribute to the quality of education and establishes that it is the competence and responsibility of Public Authorities. Thus, several mechanisms have been established for monitoring and controlling the functioning of the education system in order to ensure quality education for all:

  • High Inspectorate. With competences at a State level supervising all studies, non-university and university, guaranteeing that all Autonomous Communities comply with the normative established by the State. The LOE establishes that civil servants, as a body integrated into the State, are to be considered as a Public Authority in its own right, allowing them to collaborate with the State Authorities and of the Autonomous Communities. The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (MECD) regulates its organisation, its staff governance and, after consulting with the Autonomous Communities, the procedure for action.
  • Education inspectorate for non-university studies. The regional Educational Authorities order, regulate and carry out inspection within their territorial area. Education inspection is carried out by civil servants belonging to the Body of Inspectors which in turn are under the corresponding Educational Authorities. Inspectors have their field of action assigned depending on different criteria, such as their university degree, training courses for education inspection, professional experience in teaching and their own experience in education inspection. The procedures for the provision of work posts take into account the demand of the Educational Authorities and may value previous teaching specialisation as a merit of applicants. The working conditions of the education inspectors are the same as the rest of civil servant teachers, and are regulated by their own normative, as for the basic legislation applicable to civil servants of the entire Public Authority.
  • Universities, as autonomous institutions, develop their own control and supervision mechanisms.

Staff responsible for guidance

In Spain, the implementation of education policies focusing on the quality of education has led to the establishment of guidance services designed as instruments for change and educational optimisation. For detailed information on education policies see the chapter Educational Support and Guidance.

In regards to the tutoring function of teachers, the LOE establishes specific proposals in order to reinforce tutoring and notes that the Educational Authorities must favour the recognition of tutorial function by means of the appropriate professional and economic incentives.

In reference to the improvement of learning and teacher support, the LOE notes that the Educational Authorities are responsible for promoting the necessary resources in order to guarantee the existence of services or specialised professionals in education, psychological pedagogy and professional guidance. Therefore, the professionals in charge of the carrying out the guidance tasks in non-university institutions are the following:

  • Class teachers, who carry out their activity in the classroom, and are responsible for pupils’ guidance as a group through tutoring, which is part of the teaching activity.
  • Counsellors (psychologists, pedagogues and psycho-pedagogues) who coordinate educational guidance at the educational establishment through structures internal to the institution (Guidance Departments or Units) or external (Educational and Psycho-pedagogical Guidance Teams, Early Care Teams or Specific Teams). They carry out activities related to the direct involvement with pupils, teachers and families, as well as advice regarding the development of the institution’s documentation, prevention measures, etc.
  • At the level of direct intervention at educational institutions, social workers and specialist teachers responsible for implementing attention to diversity measures are also included in the above mentioned guidance structures.
  • At the level of indirect or specific intervention with educational institutions, actions supporting the guidance structures directly involved with pupils, teachers and families are implemented. They are carried out by structures external to the institution and can be basically of two types (specific resource centres or advice centres), and have different names in each Autonomous Community.

For detailed information on initial training for staff responsible for guidance see article on Initial education for teachers working in early childhood and school education.

Universities also have psychological pedagogic units where professional guidance exists. Their aim is to offer information, resources, support and training for students making the transition from university life to the labour market. These services usually depend on the Vice-rectories related to student support, although in some cases they depend on University-Business Foundations.

Professionals working at the service of university guidance are usually the following:

  • Pedagogues, psychologists and/or pedagogy psychologists.
  • Guidance and Work Placement Technicians
  • Economists, lawyers, sociologists, etc.
  • Administrative and Services Personnel (PAS)

Other education staff

In non-university and university institutions the educational action comprises, apart from teaching, other activities carried out by staff with different types of qualifications.

In non-university institutions there might be professionals in charge of carrying out educational and/or health support. These are specialists with a specific training for the tasks they carry out, like health aid technicians, speech therapists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, clinical auxiliaries, educators, advanced technicians in social integration, specialised technicians in education and infant assistants.

In addition, there are professionals in charge of the administration tasks and of the general services at schools. This staff is called Administrative Personnel and of Services (PAS) and is integrated by clerical workers, librarians, ITC and service staff.

In public schools this type of personnel may be of a civil servant nature or employees, ascribed to bodies and/or different levels depending on the function of the requisites for entering the profession related to their qualifications. Supply or service contracts also exist.

The different types of personnel at the service of the Public Authority, and among them the Educational Authorities, come under the Basic Statute of the Civil Servant. This statute, in addition to civil servants and interim staff, regulates some of the aspects of employee staff that work for the Public Authorities. The categories and work conditions of non-teaching staff in public schools related to educational action, administrative and services come under the different Collective Agreements that the Autonomous Communities establish. Furthermore, employed staff fall under the Workers’ Statute and their Collective Agreements applicable, as for their work contract.

The planning and offer non-teaching service personnel who carry out education and/or health support tasks and clerical and service personnel come under the competence of the Educational Authorities of the Autonomous Communities.

Publicly-funded private schools and private schools employ their personnel by means of contracts. The categories of the non-teaching personnel in private centres related to educational action, administration and services appearing under the Collective Agreements of the private teaching and of the publicly-funded private schools, respectively, both implemented in the State of Spain.

In university institutions there a professionals in charge of carrying out medical health services, counselling and Health and Safety services. These staffs develops the prevention action plan and the wellbeing of students and staff, and is integrated, mainly, by specialised doctors in Work Medicine, psychologists, nurses and Advanced Technicians in Health and Safety.

Universities also have Administrative and Services Personnel (PAS), integrated by clerks, ITCs and librarian staff and services personnel. The administrative and services personnel of public universities is made up of contracted employees by the own university, and by civil servant personnel belonging to the bodies and ranks of other Public Authorities.

The civil servant administrative and services personnel of public universities is governed by the 2007 Organic Act modifying the Organic Act on Universities (LOMLOU), and the normative that it develops, by the general legislation of civil servants, by the dispositions of the development of this Act which the Autonomous Communities and by the university’s own statute. It is also regulated by work legislation and the applicable collective agreements.

Private university institutions contracted personnel are governed by the collective agreements for private university institutions, by the statutes of the own university, the Workers’ Statute, the possible applicable collective agreements as for the work contract they have.