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Spain:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Spain

Contents

Spain:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Spain:Historical Development

Spain:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Spain:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Spain:Political and Economic Situation

Spain:Organisation and Governance

Spain:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Spain:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Spain:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Spain:Organisation of Private Education

Spain:National Qualifications Framework

Spain:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Spain:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Spain:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Spain:Funding in Education

Spain:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Spain:Higher Education Funding

Spain:Adult Education and Training Funding

Spain:Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Primary Education

Spain:Organisation of Primary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Spain:Assessment in Primary Education

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Spain:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Vocational Lower Secondary Education: Basic Vocational Training cycles

Spain:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Higher Education

Spain:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Spain:First Cycle Programmes

Spain:Bachelor

Spain:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Spain:Second Cycle Programmes

Spain:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Spain:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Spain:Adult Education and Training

Spain:Distribution of Responsibilities

Spain:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Spain:Main Providers

Spain:Main Types of Provision

Spain:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Spain:Teachers and Education Staff

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Management and Other Education Staff

Spain:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Spain:Management Staff for Higher Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Quality Assurance

Spain:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Educational Support and Guidance

Spain:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Spain:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Spain:Mobility and Internationalisation

Spain:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Mobility in Higher Education

Spain:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Spain:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Spain:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:National Reforms in School Education

Spain:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Spain:National Reforms in Higher Education

Spain:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Spain:European Perspective

Spain:Legislation

Spain:Institutions

Spain:Bibliography

Spain:Glossary

The Spanish education system is currently undergoing a reform process. The Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education, which was published in December 2013 and has already begun to be implemented this academic year 2014/15, modifies certain aspects of the 2006 Education Act. Both Acts constitute the legal framework regulating the general organisation of the education system.

The executive governing body of public educational institutions is not the school head alone, but the management team, made up of: the school head, the head of studies, the secretary and any other figures established by the Education Authorities (vice-headteachers, deputy head of studies, vice-secretaries, heads of halls of residence, etc.). In all cases, the executive governing body is composed of the institution’s teaching staff that combine their teaching with leadership and management.

The Education Act and the Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Educatio promote a collegiate headship, in which the management team carries out its duties coherently, in accordance with the instructions of the headteacher. Furthermore, each Autonomous Community defines the functions of the management team and of its members, complementing the following functions below.

The Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education establishes that the school head has the following competences:

  • Represent the school, the Education Authority within the school and communicate to the latter the ideas, aspirations and needs of the educational community.
  • Supervise and coordinate the activities of the school without detriment to the powers of the Teachers’ Assembly and the School Council. 
  • Be responsible for the pedagogical supervision, promote educational innovation and encourage plans in order to attain the goals of the School Development Plan.
  • Ensure that legislation and other regulations in force are observed.
  • Serve as the head to the school staff.
  • Foster coexistence, guarantee mediation in conflict resolution and impose the appropriate disciplinary measures against students in accordance with the regulations in force and without detriment to the powers of the School Council. To this end, the headteacher has to promote the speeding up of procedures for conflict resolution in schools.
  • Encourage collaboration with families, institutions and organisations facilitating relations between the school and the environment, and to promote a school atmosphere which favours study and the implementation of other actions creating a favourable environment for pupils’ acquisition of knowledge and values.
  • Promote internal evaluations and collaborate in external evaluations and in the evaluation of the teaching staff. 
  • Call and preside over the academic events and meetings of the School Council and the Teachers’ Assembly and implement the agreements reached by such bodies.
  • Contract works, services and supplies, as well as authorising expenses in accordance with the school budget, order payments and endorse the official school certifications and documents, as laid down by the Education Authorities.
  • Formulate proposals to the Education Authority as regards the appointment and dismissal of members of the management team, subsequent to notification to both the Teachers’Assembly and the School Council.
  • Approve the school development plan, the management project and the school organisational and operational rules.
  • Decide upon the admission of students.
  • Approve the allocation of additional resources.
  • Establish guidelines for the collaboration, for educational and cultural purposes, with local authorities, other educational institutions, bodies and organisations.
  • Any other power established by the Education Authority.

The head of studies is the person responsible for all academic-educational matters in the school. In order to support the head of studies in his/her responsibilities, provision has been made for assistant heads of studies for Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO), Bachillerato and Vocational Training in the case of secondary education institutions with a large number of students or highly complex organisation.

The head of studies is responsible for encouraging the correct coexistence in the educational institution and guaranteeing the procedure to impose the relevant corrections. He/she is also responsible for coordinating and ensuring the implementation of academic, guidance and supplementary activities for teachers and students. Further, he/she also participates in the coordination of the tasks of the cycle teams in Primary Education and of the heads of the Didactic Departments in the case of Secondary Education.

The economic administration and management are vested in the school secretary. His/her duties are, among others, to establish the economic regime, coordinate and manage the administration and services staff, draw up the budget draft and/or project, act as secretary of the mixed-membership bodies, look after the archives of the educational institution, issue the certificates and ensure the maintenance of materials. In Secondary Education institutions where complex situations may have sprang, it is possible to have a deputy administrator substituting the secretary when it comes to administering human and material resources. Moreover, the secretary is the only member of the management team that cannot be named by the school head, as he/she is appointed by the Education Authority and they have a definite assigned post at the school.

In public institutions with special characteristics (Specialised Education, ordinary schools teaching Adult Education, Spanish schools abroad, etc.) the composition and functions of their governing bodies are adapted to their singularities.

Two collegiate bodies also take part in the administration and governance of public non-university institutions; these are the School Council and the Teacher’s Assembly.

In publicly-funded private schools, the governing bodies required for their existence are: the school head, the School Council and the Teacher’s Assembly. On a different note, private schools have the autonomy to determine their organisation, in a way that they see fit when establishing their governing and participation bodies.

For detailed information on the collegiate bodies that take part in the management and governance in public and publicly private funded schools see the article on Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level.

Requirements for appointment

In the case of public educational institutions, the school head, the head of studies and the secretary are career civil servant teachers and therefore their initial training is similar to that of other civil servant teachers. For detailed information on the initial training for members of the management team, see the article on Initial education for teachers working in early childhood and school education.

The School Head

At public-sector institutions, the selection of the school head is through a merits competition among career civil servant teachers of any of the types of provision offered by the institution. The selection must be carried out in accordance with the principles of equality, publicity, merit and ability. The Education Authorities develop the State normative and establish the procedures for selection, specific training, appointment, and recognition of head teachers in schools across their corresponding territories. Equally, the Education Authorities are the ones in charge of publicly announcing the merits competition and of establishing the targeted criteria (scale) and the procedures for assessing the candidate’s merits, together with their presented Leadership Project. These public announcements are carried out in accordance to the end of the period in which head teachers were appointed to their corresponding schools, and include the relation of schools up for public competition.

Those civil servant teachers wishing to access the post of head teacher at a school must present their candidacy at the desired school. The requirements to take part in the competition are as follows:

  • Have a length of service of at least 5 years as a career civil servant teacher.
  • Have worked as a career civil servant teacher for at least 5 years, in any of the types of provision offered by the chosen institution.
  • Be in possession of a document certifying having taken a course on the development of leadership, organised by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport or regional education authorities. For detailed information on this training course, see article Reforms in school education.
  • Be working in a public educational establishment, teaching any of the types of provision offered by the chosen institution, with a length of service of at least one year by the time the vacancy is announced.
  • Submit a management project which includes, among other aspects, its objectives, lines of action and assessment.

Education Authorities may exempt candidates from fulfilling any of the above mentioned requisites in cases where schools provide exclusively Pre-Primary Education, in incomplete Primary Education Schools, in Secondary Education schools with less than eight units and in schools where professional artistic education, sport and languages are taught or targeted at adults with less than eight teachers.

The aim of the process for the selection of candidates, which takes place in the educaitonal institution concerned, is to select the most suitable professional candidate and that they receive the strongest support. It is the responsibility of the education authorities to announce this process, as well as to establish objective criteria, the selection procedure and the criteria to assess their merits and the management project being presented. It is carried out by a committee made up of representatives of the education authority, on one hand, and of the educational institution concerned, on the other (between 30% and 50% of the total number of members of the committee; of this percentage, at least 50% must be members of the Teachers’ Assembly). The education authorities establish the total number of members of the committees and the proportion of representatives amongst members of the administration and educational institutions. This committee should also involve the School Council.

This committee verifies compliance with the requirements for candidates and objectively assesses, by reference to a scale established by the education authority, the academic and professional merits accredited by applicants and their management project. Prior experience in a management team, active duty status, the destination, previous work and work as a teacher in the chosen educational institution, as well as a having participated in the development of actions aimed at improving the quality of educational institutions, where relevant, are positively assessed in the process.

Priority is given to teachers of the concerned institution. If there are no applicants from the institution in question or if they are not selected, the committee will take into consideration applicants from other educational establishments.

The selected candidate is decided upon democratically by all members of the committee. The candidature that is selected is the one that has obtained the highest final score. Furthermore, the results of the admitted and excluded candidates (always including the reasons behind their exclusion) must be published in the school or institution for which they are competing. The committee proposes the selected candidate to the Education Authority or announces the lack of selected candidates.

Under extraordinary circumstances, whenever there is a shortage of candidates or whenever a school has just been opened or even if the corresponding committee has not selected any candidates, the Education Authority may appoint a civil servant teacher as a school head for a maximum of four years.

Selected applicants must complete an initial training programme organised by the Education Authorities, before being appointed as school heads. However, applicants who have been selected and provide evidence of at least two years’ experience in the post or who are going to work at specific institutions established by the Education Authority are exempt from attending the programme. Moreover, in some Autonomous Communities candidates may be exempt from some parts of this initial training, but these vary from one Autonomous Community to another. The Regional Ministry or the Departments of Education of from each Autonomous Community are the ones in charge of organising and planning the training programme, as well as the ones who provide their provision.

The initial training programme usually consists on a theoretical course and a practical period. The theoretical course usually lasts a minimum of a hundred hours and is about fundamental aspects of the Spanish Education System: legislation, organisation and the functioning of schools, the organisation and management of human and material resources, group communication and work strategies and other contents related to school headship. The practical period normally lasts, around six months. During this training period the Education Authority usually appoints the selected candidates as trainee school heads and they are assigned a tutor who is a civil servant teacher and who has experience in the post of school head.

An assessment committee is drawn by members appointed by Education Authority in order to assess the initial training. This committee grades the candidate with a “pass” or a “fail”. In order to obtain a “pass” it is mandatory to have obtained a positive evaluation both in the theory course and during their practical period. The candidates graded with a “fail” in any of the stages may not obtain the appointment, having to re-enter a new selection process. When the candidate is evaluated with a “fail” the Education Authority may appoint a civil servant teacher as a temporary school head until the end of the school year.

Once the candidates have passed the programme, the Education Authorities appoint the school heads of corresponding institutions for a four year period. Their appointment may be renewed for another four year term, depending on the whether they have been positively assessed at the end of their first term. School heads assessed positively obtain personal, professional and economic recognition throughout their school headship. The criteria and procedures of this evaluation are public and objective and will include the results of the individualised evaluation on completion of the 3rd year of primary education and of the final evaluations at the end of primary education, compulsory secondary education and Bachillerato. Similarly, the Education Authorities may establish a maximum limit of terms school heads may apply for renewal. Once the possible renewals are over, the candidate must take part in a new merits competition in order to be appointed as school head again in the same or in a different institution.

Once school heads end their term of office, they return to their original teaching post. For this reason or cause, the Education Authorities may appoint a temporary school head, who will carry out the post until the next selection period is over and a new director is appointed.

In publicly-funded private schools the school head represents the head of the institution and he/she is appointed by consensus of the owner and the School Council. The duties of the school head are similar to those of public school heads and their term of office is the same. On a different note, however, private schools have autonomy to determine their organisation and functioning and may establish the governing bodies they see most fit.

Other Management Team Members

The school head, having previously consulted the Teacher’s Assembly and the School Council, drafts a proposal for the appointment and dismissal of the rest of the members of the management team to the education authority. The main requisite to be appointed is that of being a civil servant teacher and teaching some of the subjects at the institution. In the circumstances where the institution has recently opened or under any other circumstances where the institution lacks any civil servant teachers with an ultimate destination at the institution, the school head may nominate teachers of the institution which do not have an ultimate destination, with the consent of the School Council. All members of the management team have to cease their activities at the end of the term of office or upon the termination of service of the headteacher.

Conditions of service

In general terms, the conditions of service for school heads, heads of studies and secretaries are similar to those of other career civil servant teachers, with some exceptions listed below.

The School Head

School heads have the condition of civil servant teachers, which means that they have an indefinite contractual relation with the Education Authorities.

The salary for public institution school heads is established, in the same way as the rest of civil servant teachers, according to the adscription to the body or scale to which they belong, to a certain professional Subgroup or Group, to their seniority (triennials), to their category or professional level (Destination Complement) and the post they carry out (Specific Complement). For more information on school head salaries please see the Eurydice webpage and the article on Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education.

Nonetheless, the exercise of leadership posts, and especially the post of school head, is compensated differently due to its required responsibility and dedication. That is why, in addition to their wages, they receive a Specific Complement (“singular component”) both of the ordinary monthly payments as those additional payments of June and December. The State establishes the minimum amount of the Specific Complement and each Education Authority establishes their amount varying, in addition, depending on the typology of the institution based on the number of registered students.

Complementary minimum retributions for the carrying out of school head in non-university teaching institutions

CONCEPT
TYPES OF INSTITUTIONS GROUP A
Subgroup 1 (level 24) Subgroup 2 (level 21)
 
Ordinary monthly payments
A 628.29 514.90
B 541.17 466.10
C 489.89 337.32
D 443.48 249.41
E - 152.13
F - 65.69
Additional payments (June and December)  A 628.29 514.90
B 541.17 466.10
C 489.89 337.32
D 443.48 249.41
E - 152.13
F - 65.69

Source: Gathered by Eurydice Spain-REDIE according to current legislation.

School heads who have received a positive assessment during the period that each Education Authority determines, maintain, after having left their post and while they are active, a payment corresponding to a share of the “singular component” of the Specific Complement that they used to receive while they were school heads in the proportion, conditions and requisites that each Education Authority determines. Some Autonomous Communities add additional incentives.

Similarly, the exercise of leadership and, in each case, the post of school head, is especially acknowledged and valued in the public teaching post. In competitions for teaching mobility, having been a member of the leadership team, either as a school head, a head of studies, a secretary or any other leadership posts is highly valued.

School heads, in general terms, have the same working hours and holidays as the rest of the teaching staff. However, their own specific school headship tasks are included within their teaching hours, so their teaching load is reduced. The Education Authorities are the ones in charge of establishing the number of hours that are to be assigned to teaching and to headship tasks, which vary in accordance to the function of the post (if it is that of a school head or any other leadership posts), of the level of studies taught at the institution and of its size (amount of registered students), resulting in a different teaching load for school heads from one Autonomous Community to another. For more information on the working hours and holidays of teachers see the article on Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education.

In the event of an absence or illness of the school head, the head of studies or equivalent will provisionally substitute the school head in all of his/her duties. If this was not possible either, the school head would be then substituted by the most senior teacher of the institution and, if they were many in this situation, the one that has had the most long-standing job in teaching would be the appointed one.

Educational Authorities, both at State and at Autonomic level, organise specific programmes and courses of continuous professional development (CPD) for the practise of the headship function in teaching institutions, in order to improve the leadership teams’ performance. The Education Authorities, universities or non-profit organisations recognised by the Education Authorities publicly announce continuous professional development courses on school organisation and public teaching institution. Their impartation and/or assistance to these courses/programmes on behalf of the teachers may be valued in a public competition for the selection of future school heads. However, and as civil servant teachers, they may also access continuous professional development as CPD is generally offered by all Education Authorities. Taking part in these programmes or courses leads to specific effects on the independent professional career of the institution where they work, such as merits in publicly announced promotions or mobility, or the cashing of a “salary complement” (a supplement that is added every five or six years). For more information on this additional salary complement see the article on Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education.

School heads are evaluated at the end of the period in which they were appointed. If they obtain a positive evaluation they receive personal and professional recognition as is established by the Education Authorities, which are the ones that establish the assessment procedure and its characteristics.

In regards to mobility, and as civil servant teachers, school heads have the chance to take part in State competitions organised by Education Authorities for the filling of posts at teaching institutions, and other posts that are within their own management. For more information on the State competitions organised for mobility purposes see the article on Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education.

The dismissal of any of the leadership members, as in the case of any of the rest of civil servant teachers, takes place whenever there is a serious offense, a loss of Spanish nationality or disqualification of a public post. The management of such processes corresponds to a commission of administrative infractions and is managed through a common process for all public civil servants.

Retirement conditions for school heads are the same as those corresponding to other civil servant teachers. The compulsory age for civil servant teachers to retire is 65 years of age. The amount of each pension varies depending on the years served.

Other Members of the Leadership Team

The school head, having previously consulted the Teacher’s Assembly and the School Council, drafts a proposal for the appointment of the head of studies, secretary or other the members of the leadership team to the Education Authority. They are all civil servant teachers, which means that they have an indefinite contractual relation with the Education Authority.

The salary retribution of the leadership members of public institutions is established, as the rest of civil servant teachers, according to their adscription to the rest of the body or scale they belong to a certain professional classification Subgroup or Group, to their seniority (triennials), to their category or professional level (Destination Complement) and to the specific post they carry out (Specific Complement). For detailed information on rest of the leadership members see Eurydice’s website and the article on Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education.

Additionally, however, they perceive a “singular component” of the Specific Complement as members of the leadership team, both in ordinary monthly wages as in the additional pays in June and December, restricted solely to period in which they are in these posts. The State establishes the minimum amount of this complement and the Education Authorities of the Autonomous Communities set their amount, which varies depending on the different institutions and on the number of registered students.

Complementary minimum retributions for the post of leadership in non-university studies

CONCEPT 

Type of institution

Subgroup 1 (level 24)

Subgroup 2 (level 21)

Vice-school head

Head of studies

Secretary

Head of Studies

Secretary

Ordinary monthly payments

A

276.40

276.40

276.40

179.17

179.17

B

271.03

271.03

271.03

168.35

168.35

C

195.38

195.38

195.38

162.96

162.96

D

168.35

168.35

168.35

119.73

119.73

E

168.35

168.35

-

-

93.33

F

-

-

-

-

-

Additional payments 

(Juneand December)

A

276.40

276.40

276.40

179.17

179.17

B

271.03

271.03

271.03

168.35

168.35

C

195.38

195.38

195.38

162.96

162.96

D

168.35

168.35

168.35

119.73

119.73

E

-

168.35

-

-

93.33

Source: Gathered by Eurydice Spain-REDIE according to current legislation.

Leadership members have the same working hours and holidays as the rest of the teaching staff. In the same case as the school head, their own specific school leadership tasks are included within their teaching hours, so their teaching load is reduced. The Education Authorities are the ones in charge of establishing the number of hours that are to be assigned to teaching and to leadership tasks, which vary in accordance to the function of the post (if it is that of a school head or other leadership post), of the level of studies taught at the institution and of its size (amount of registered students), resulting in a different teaching load for school heads from one Autonomous Community to another. For more information on the working hours and holidays of teachers see the article on Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education.

The post of head of studies and secretary or other leadership posts are recognised and highly valued when it comes to public competitions for job transfer.

In the event of an absence or illness of the head of studies, of the secretary or equivalent leadership members, a teacher appointed by the school head may substitute any of these posts and take charge temporarily of their duties. The School Council must be informed on the school head’s decision to appoint a teacher as either a head of studies or secretary.

The leadership team’s term of office ends with the end of the school head which appointed them, or under any of the following circumstances:

  • A motivated resignation accepted by the school head, informing of his/her decision to leave the School Council of the institution.
  • Whenever the leadership post is left due to a voluntary or forced transfer, is offered a post under special circumstances, voluntary or forced leave and suspension of the accorded functions within current legislation, or due to any other circumstance.
  • Proposed by the school in a written document, previous communication to the School Council of the institution.
  • Whenever they severely breach any of their functions, the school head will draft a report on the offence for the interested party and will inform the School Council.

The conditions for taking part in programmes and CPD courses, mobility, dismissal and retirement are established for civil servant teachers, described under the working conditions of the school head.