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Spain:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

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Overview Spain

Contents

Spain:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Spain:Historical Development

Spain:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Spain:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Spain:Political and Economic Situation

Spain:Organisation and Governance

Spain:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Spain:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Spain:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Spain:Organisation of Private Education

Spain:National Qualifications Framework

Spain:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Spain:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Spain:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Spain:Funding in Education

Spain:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Spain:Higher Education Funding

Spain:Adult Education and Training Funding

Spain:Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Primary Education

Spain:Organisation of Primary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Spain:Assessment in Primary Education

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Spain:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Vocational Lower Secondary Education: Basic Vocational Training cycles

Spain:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Higher Education

Spain:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Spain:First Cycle Programmes

Spain:Bachelor

Spain:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Spain:Second Cycle Programmes

Spain:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Spain:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Spain:Adult Education and Training

Spain:Distribution of Responsibilities

Spain:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Spain:Main Providers

Spain:Main Types of Provision

Spain:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Spain:Teachers and Education Staff

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Management and Other Education Staff

Spain:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Spain:Management Staff for Higher Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Quality Assurance

Spain:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Educational Support and Guidance

Spain:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Spain:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Spain:Mobility and Internationalisation

Spain:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Mobility in Higher Education

Spain:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Spain:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Spain:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:National Reforms in School Education

Spain:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Spain:National Reforms in Higher Education

Spain:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Spain:European Perspective

Spain:Legislation

Spain:Institutions

Spain:Bibliography

Spain:Glossary

Academic Guidance

When accessing lifelong learning an initial student assessment  is made. It is about their previous knowledge and their expectations and interests, with the purpose of recommending the most suitable training itinerary. The people in charge of guidance in every educational institution establish the process for assessing the learning acquired through formal and non-formal learning processes or through experience, since the 2006 Organic Act on Education (LOE) establishes that adult people can learn through formal or non-formal education, through work experience or social activities. For this reason, some connections have been set between both training paths and some measures have been adopted for validating the learning acquired on this manner. After the initial assessment and the assignment of the education stage, tutorship and guidance receive a special attention in these studies, aimed at the comprehensive and balanced development of all the students abilities, as well as their personal, academic and professional guidance.

Academic guidance in initial education, secondary education (for detailed information, see sections Provision to raise achievement in basic skills and Provision to achieve a recognised qualification during adulthood: Bachillerato) and higher education for adults (for detailed information, see section Provision to achieve a recognised qualification during adulthood: University education) is part of the teaching processes. Each group has a tutor teacher and there are specialised guidance services.

Psychological Counselling

The tutor is responsible for students psychological counselling, since he/she is the first referent of the student and he/she ensures an harmonious and appropriate development in every area, including the emotional and social ones. On this manner, the tutor meets individually with students when necessary.

In order to carry out this counselling, tutors have the support and intervention of the corresponding guidance structure, which can also begin individual sessions or make a more exhaustive assessment. It is worth mentioning that any of these professionals makes a therapeutic intervention itself. When the need of an intervention of this kind is detected, students are referred to external services, generally related to the field of mental health.

Career Guidance

Professional guidance for adult people is made through different organisms and institutions, both at private and public. It is necessary to take into account that each Authority develops its own guidance structure, at local or regional level.

In this area some actions are developed to offer information related to the training-employment relationship in the different studies from which adult people can benefit:

All training cycles include in their contents one or several vocational modules related to guidance, labour relations and the development of entrepreneurial spirit, without prejudice to the treatment of this theme in a cross-curricular manner. This training is aimed to know teaching and employment opportunities, the setting up and management of enterprises, self-employment, work organisation and entrepreneurial relations, basic labour legislation, relative equal opportunities and non-discrimination against disabled people, as well as the rights and duties resulting from labour relations, in order to make easier the access to employment and reintegration into the labour market. The contents of the modules focus on the characteristics specifics to every professional group of production sector.

Likewise, adult people studying Vocational Training must also study the vocational module on Training in Workplaces (FCT), consisting of a block of specific training whose contents are organised according to the productive activities specific for the professional profile. The most meaningful characteristic of this training is that it is developed in a real productive field where students observe and develop the activities and functions specific for the different positions corresponding a profession, they know the organisation of the productive processes or services and labour relations, always focused and guided by the tutors of the educational institutions and the workplace.

The Common Employment Services Portfolio of the National Employment System offers a Career Guidance Service to advise unemployed and employed workers on training and employment opportunities, as well as on the recognition and accreditation of their qualifications.

Its aim is to define and implement individual professional paths in order to improve workers’ employability, develop entrepreneurship and support business and self-employment initiatives. For detailed information, see section Common Employment Services Portfolio of the National Employment System.

Finally, there is also training aimed at the acquisition of professional competences through a mixed process of employment and training which combines formal learning with professional practice. These training actions include training and learning contracts, as well as workshop-schools, trade training centres and employment workshops. For detailed information, see section Work-linked training.

The evaluation and accreditation of professional competences facilitates lifelong learning, labour market integration, as well as adults' personal and professional development. The education and employment authorities guarantee an open and permanent service providing information and guidance on the procedure and the official certifications that they can obtain. During this process, guidance is compulsory and it can have an individual or group nature, depending on the characteristics of the call and applicants' needs.

For detailed information on the procedure for the recognition of professional competences, see article Validation of non-formal and informal learning.