This page was last modified on 24 April 2015, at 16:04.

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Spain

Contents

Spain:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Spain:Historical Development

Spain:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Spain:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Spain:Political and Economic Situation

Spain:Organisation and Governance

Spain:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Spain:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Spain:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Spain:Organisation of Private Education

Spain:National Qualifications Framework

Spain:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Spain:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Spain:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Spain:Funding in Education

Spain:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Spain:Higher Education Funding

Spain:Adult Education and Training Funding

Spain:Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Primary Education

Spain:Organisation of Primary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Spain:Assessment in Primary Education

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Spain:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Vocational Lower Secondary Education: Basic Vocational Training cycles

Spain:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Higher Education

Spain:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Spain:First Cycle Programmes

Spain:Bachelor

Spain:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Spain:Second Cycle Programmes

Spain:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Spain:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Spain:Adult Education and Training

Spain:Distribution of Responsibilities

Spain:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Spain:Main Providers

Spain:Main Types of Provision

Spain:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Spain:Teachers and Education Staff

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Management and Other Education Staff

Spain:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Spain:Management Staff for Higher Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Quality Assurance

Spain:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Educational Support and Guidance

Spain:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Spain:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Spain:Mobility and Internationalisation

Spain:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Mobility in Higher Education

Spain:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Spain:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Spain:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:National Reforms in School Education

Spain:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Spain:National Reforms in Higher Education

Spain:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Spain:European Perspective

Spain:Legislation

Spain:Institutions

Spain:Bibliography

Spain:Glossary

The implementation of education policies focused on the quality of education has led to the establishment of guidance services designed as tools for education change and optimisation. Guidance, as described in the 2006 Organic Act on Education (LOE), has the following characteristics:

  • It is a right for every student
  • It constitutes a key intervention for implementing the principles of equity and education quality in basic education, although it must be lifelong extended. 
  • It is based on the principles of prevention, development and global intervention. 
  • Their target groups are students, families and education professionals. 
  • All the school community is in charge of it, although counsellors play a  great role.
  • It is carried out by trained and prestigious professionals.
  • It requires comprehensive plans for attention to diversity and network. 

The different Education Authorities are responsible for developing guidance. For this reason, currently, most of the Autonomous Communities have published specific regulations for their total or partial organisation. In addition, some aspects related to the functions and structure of education guidance are established through the regulation of the curriculum of Primary Education and Lower Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) of the Autonomous Communities and the schools organic rules.

The organisation of the guidance model allows to establish three models of intervention: classroom, direct intervention in schools and indirect intervention or with schools.

The classroom level covers the actions established in the school Tutorial Action Plan. They are developed by the tutor and all the teachers of a group of students. In ESO this tutorial action must 'pay special attention to the education and professional guidance of students'.

The direct intervention level gathers different guidance structures. In Pre-Primary and Primary Education there is a predominance of guidance structures external to schools, Education and Psychopedadogical Guidance Teams; while in Secondary Education these structures are usually integrated in them, constituting on this manner Guidance Departments. This level bring together the actions related to the direct work with students, teachers and families, counselling when preparing the school documents, the establishment of prevention measures, diagnose and intervention with students and, sometimes, teaching.

The third level in organisational model for guidance is indirect intervention with schools, constituted by external structures serving as a support to the said structures for indirect intervention. They also carry out coordination functions between the different education authorities of an area, keeping communication between institutions and professionals.

Academic Guidance

Academic guidance is developed at classroom level. The teachers-tutors are responsible for implementing the Tutorial Action Plan, which includes the organisation of every action of education guidance. These actions are carried out during compulsory and post-compulsory education, and their main goals are to help students to improve their academic performance, to solve out their difficulties in the school, to acquire the necessary aptitudes for living in society and to learn to think and take decisions.

In the direct intervention level, guidance services collaborate in the development of the said Plan. In addition, in every Autonomous Community guidance services collaborate and participate for preparing the school development plan, the Yearly  General Programme, the Plan for attention to diversity and the Plan for academic and professional guidance, all of them related to academic and professional guidance.

In the field of prevention these services also take early intervention tasks for those students at high risk or with special education needs, prevention of school drop-out and non-adjustment to school, collection of information from the schools where the students come from and preparation of days for welcoming students and make their entry easier. Also awareness campaigns are implemented for integrating students or prevention of risk and conflict conduct, and plans for welcoming foreign students are designed and developed.

On the other hand, diagnose functions are also developed, carrying out psychopedagogic evaluations, preparing the reports and formulating more adapted school proposals.

Lastly, it is possible to have the indirect intervention of external counselling services for academic guidance, specifically in questions related to education innovation, counselling to teachers and materials promotion. 

Psychological Counselling

The Tutorial Action plan, a document including all the actions related education guidance, gathers aspects concerning the whole development of the student, among which improving oneself knowledge and one's self-esteem, acquiring the necessary aptitudes for living in society and learning to think and take decisions.

The tutor is the main responsible for students psychological counselling, since he/she is the first referent of the student and he/she ensures an harmonious and appropriate personal, emotional and social development. To this end they keep the necessary individual meetings, summoning students' relatives if necessary.

In order to carry out this counselling, tutors have the support and intervention of the corresponding guidance structure, which can also begin individual sessions or making a more exhaustive assessment. 

It is worth mentioning that  any of these professionals makes a therapeutic intervention itself. When the need of an intervention of this kind is detected, students are referred to external services, generally related to the field of mental health.  

Career Guidance

It constitutes the actions carried out with all the students of the school, oriented to making easier the decision-making concerning possible academic itineraries and the professional alternatives which adapt the most to their characteristics, interests and possibilities. These actions are aimed at the students for them to develop the skills implied in the decision-making process related to their life project, to facilitate information on the different education or work options in every education level, and to promote a rapprochement to the labour work and to the processes favoring transition into active life. These actions will be more important from ESO.

The tutor, at classroom level, is in charge of developing the actions in line with the Academic and Professional Guidance Plan, in collaboration with other guidance services for direct intervention. The said Plan must go with Secondary students during all their studies, specially highlighting the choice of elective subjects, the assessment of the possible itineraries at the end of ESO (curricular diversification programmes or initial professional qualification programmes) and in the decision among the different modalities of Bachillerato of vocational training cycles.