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Spain:Glossary

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Overview Spain

Contents

Spain:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Spain:Historical Development

Spain:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Spain:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Spain:Political and Economic Situation

Spain:Organisation and Governance

Spain:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Spain:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Spain:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Spain:Organisation of Private Education

Spain:National Qualifications Framework

Spain:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Spain:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Spain:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Spain:Funding in Education

Spain:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Spain:Higher Education Funding

Spain:Adult Education and Training Funding

Spain:Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Primary Education

Spain:Organisation of Primary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Spain:Assessment in Primary Education

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Spain:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Vocational Lower Secondary Education: Basic Vocational Training cycles

Spain:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Higher Education

Spain:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Spain:First Cycle Programmes

Spain:Bachelor

Spain:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Spain:Second Cycle Programmes

Spain:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Spain:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Spain:Adult Education and Training

Spain:Distribution of Responsibilities

Spain:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Spain:Main Providers

Spain:Main Types of Provision

Spain:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Spain:Teachers and Education Staff

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Management and Other Education Staff

Spain:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Spain:Management Staff for Higher Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Quality Assurance

Spain:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Educational Support and Guidance

Spain:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Spain:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Spain:Mobility and Internationalisation

Spain:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Mobility in Higher Education

Spain:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Spain:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Spain:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:National Reforms in School Education

Spain:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Spain:National Reforms in Higher Education

Spain:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Spain:European Perspective

Spain:Legislation

Spain:Institutions

Spain:Bibliography

Spain:Glossary

Bachillerato

The Bachillerato is the general -or academic- branch in Upper Secondary Education. Students holding the ‘Lower Compulsory Secondary Education certificate’ gain access to this education level. Bachillerato comprises two academic years, which are usually studied when students are between 16 and 18. It comprises the following modalities: Arts, Sciences and Technology, and Humanities and Social Sciences. The students holding a positive qualification obtain the ‘Bachillerato certificate’.

Bachillerato certificate

Certificate awarded to the students having successfully completed the General Upper Secondary Education level (‘Bachillerato’), in any of its modalities. A positive assessment in all subjects of this two-grade level is necessary to obtain the ‘Bachillerato certificate’. The holder of this certificate may gain access to the different studies of Higher Education.

Bachelor (Graduado, Licenciado

Degree awarded on successful completion of university studies. In accordance with the new organisation of university studies, this degree is awarded at the end of the first cycle programmes (Graduado). Previous to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) it used to be awarded at the end of the second cycle of university studies (Licenciado).

Certificate of professional experience (Certificado de Profesionalidad)

Certificate officially proving the ‘professional competence’ that qualifies to develop a working activity significant for a job. These competences refer to ‘units of competence’ of the professional qualifications from the Professional Qualifications National Catalogue (Catálogo Nacional de Cualificaciones Profesionales). For this reason, every ‘certificate of professional experience‘ can comprise one or more of the said units.

Competence unit (Unidad de competencia)

Minimum element of professional competence that can be partially recognised and accredited.

Dean (Decano)

A single-member governing body of the different faculties comprising a university. He/she is elected among the university’s permanent professors. He/she holds maximum authority and his/her functions focus on his/her faculty representation, running and managing.

Gathered Rural School (Colegio Rural Agrupado)

Pre-Primary and Primary school located in rural areas and made up of various schools scattered in several neighbouring localities, thus forming a single school.

Graduated (Diplomado)

Degree that used to be awarded on successful completion of the first cycle of university studies, previous to the implementation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA).

Higher polytechnic school (Escuela Politécnica Superior)

University School providing Grado and Posgrado technic studies, including different Engineering degrees in any of their specialities and/or Architecture. According to the regulations in force, this name is due to disappear. Currently, the Schools and Faculties are the institutions in charge of organising the studies and the academic, administrative and management processes leading to obtain the different university degrees.

Higher technic school (Escuela Técnica Superior)

University School which provides Grado and Posgrado technic studies in the speciality that designates the institution, corresponding to Engineering in any of its specialities or to Architecture. According to the regulations in force, this name is due to disappear. Currently, the Schools and Faculties are the institutions in charge of organising the studies and the academic, administrative and management processes leading to obtain the different university degrees.

Lower Compulsory Secondary Education Certificate (Graduado en Educación Secundaria Obligatoria)

Certificate established in the 2006 Act on Education (LOE) awarded on successful completion of Lower Compulsory Secondary Education (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria). It is the first academic certificate obtained after finishing Basic Compulsory Education. This certificate grants access to ‘Baccalaureate’, intermediate Vocational Training, intermediate Plastic Arts and Design Education ‘training cycles’, Sports Education and employment. Students who do not obtain this certificate are awarded the ‘Official Certificate of Compulsory Education’.

Official Certificate of Compulsory Education (Certificado oficial de estudios obligatorios)

Certificate of school attendance awarded to those students having studied Lower Compulsory Secondary Education and who have not obtained the ‘Lower Compulsory Secondary Education Certificate’. Its aim is to prove pupils’ schooling years and the academic competences achieved.

Professional competence (Competencia profesional)

Set of knowledge and abilities that allow to exercise a professional activity according to the production and employment demands.

Publicly-funded private schools (Centro privado concertado)

Private schools publicly funded by an agreement with the competent Education Authority, which in turn makes these institutions comply with a series of requirements.

School development plan (Proyecto educativo)

This document is drawn up, approved and implemented by non-university education institutions. It gathers the values, objectives and action priorities, and it includes the specific curriculum established by the Education Authority to be determined and approved by the Teachers’ Assembly as well as cross-curricular approach of values-based education and other studies are within cross-curricular knowledge areas, subjects and modules. The ‘school development plan’ must take into account the social and cultural background of the school. It must gather the strategy for attending student diversity, tutorial actions and the plan for coexistence; and it must comply with the principle of non-discrimination and educational inclusion as fundamental values. It is prepared by the representatives of teachers, parents and students, and approved by the School Council.

School rules (Reglamento de régimen interior)

Document of non-university education institutions gathering the rules, regulation and procedures making up the internal running of the school. It is a part of the institution’s ‘School development plan’. It is drawn up and approved by the School Board.

School teacher (Maestro)

Teacher of Pre-Primary and Primary Education. This also refers to the certificate obtained on successful completion of the first cycle of university studies at the ‘University schools’ for teacher training. This qualification is being replaced with the ‘Bachelor’ in Pre-Primary Education and ‘Bachelor’ in Primary Education in accordance with the new organisation of university studies adapted to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA).

Senior lecturer (Profesor Titular)

Body of university lecturers having the status of civil servants who gain access through the corresponding competitive examination. Their main tasks are teaching and research. The ‘Senior lecturer’ of University holds a Doctor degree; the ‘Senior lecturer’ of ‘university school’ holds a ‘Bachelor’, Architect or Engineer degree. These degrees are to be extinguished at present. The last body has been abolished by the 2007 Organic Act Modifying the Act on Universities, which established that these professionals gain access to the body of University ‘Senior lecturers’ through the Doctor degree.

Senior professor (Catedrático)

Body of lecturers who have acquired the maximum professional qualification in university and non-university education and in ‘Enseñanzas de régimen especial‘. They have the status of civil servant.

There are three bodies of ‘Senior professors’: firstly, ‘Senior professor’ of Secondary Education, Music and Dramatic Arts education, official Languages education, and Plastic Arts and Design studies: This professional is a Doctor or ‘Bachelor‘ with at least eight years’ seniority as teacher career civil servant; secondly, ‘Senior professor’ of University: This professional is a ‘Senior professor’ at a different University, a ‘Senior lecturer’ of University, or a ‘Senior professor’ of ‘University school’, the last two, with a three years’ seniority and a Doctor degree. Those holding the Doctor status, with a minimum of eight years’ seniority, are exempt from fulfilling these requirements; and, finally, ‘Senior professors’ of ‘University schools’: This professional is a Doctor. As this body has been abolished by the 2007 Organic Act Modifying the Act on Universities, they have the possibility of being integrated into the body of ‘Senior lecturers’ of University, remaining in their current situation or applying for the necessary accreditation to gain access to the body of ‘Senior professors’ of University.

Specialised Education (Enseñanzas de régimen especial)

This is the name given to Arts Education, Languages Education and Sports Education. Arts Education includes Music, Dance, Dramatic Art, Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage, Plastic Arts and Design.

Technician (Técnico)

Professional qualification achieved on successful completion of Vocational Training and some ‘Enseñanzas de régimen especial’ (professional Music and Dance, Plastic Arts and Design and Sports education). Intermediate Vocational Training leads to ‘Technician’ qualification and Advanced Vocational Training to higher ‘Technician’ qualification. In both cases, speciality is indicated. Although the main objective is qualifying for labor market, it is possible to continue other studies. The ‘Technician’ qualification gives access to ‘Baccalaureate’ or Advanced Vocational Training after having completed a specific training course, and the higher ‘Technician’ qualification to certain Grado studies related to the Vocational Training Education already completed.

Training cycle (Ciclo formativo)

Set of studies of a modular nature and variable length in which Vocational Training is organised within the Education System, as well as some of the ‘Enseñanzas de régimen especial’, such as Plastic Arts and Design and Sports Education.

University School (Escuela universitaria)

University School providing Grado and Posgrado studies for certain non-technical specialities of Social and Legal Sciences, Health Sciences and Arts and Humanities. According to the regulations in force, this name is due to disappear. Currently, the Schools and Faculties are the institutions in charge of organising the studies and the academic, administrative and management processes leading to the obtaining of the different university degrees.

Vocational module (Módulo profesional)

Minimum contents unit that can be certified in Vocational Training studies, whose positive qualification leads to the award of Vocational Training degrees in the Education System and to the ‘certificates of professional experience‘.

Yearly General Programme (Programación general anual)

Document planned in the beginning of the school year by non-university education institutions. It establishes all the elements regarding schools’ organization and running necessary for each school year, including the teaching programme, the rules and all the agreed and approved action plans.