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Spain:Funding in Education

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Overview Spain

Contents

Spain:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Spain:Historical Development

Spain:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Spain:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Spain:Political and Economic Situation

Spain:Organisation and Governance

Spain:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Spain:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Spain:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Spain:Organisation of Private Education

Spain:National Qualifications Framework

Spain:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Spain:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Spain:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Spain:Funding in Education

Spain:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Spain:Higher Education Funding

Spain:Adult Education and Training Funding

Spain:Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Primary Education

Spain:Organisation of Primary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Spain:Assessment in Primary Education

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Spain:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Vocational Lower Secondary Education: Basic Vocational Training cycles

Spain:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Higher Education

Spain:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Spain:First Cycle Programmes

Spain:Bachelor

Spain:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Spain:Second Cycle Programmes

Spain:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Spain:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Spain:Adult Education and Training

Spain:Distribution of Responsibilities

Spain:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Spain:Main Providers

Spain:Main Types of Provision

Spain:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Spain:Teachers and Education Staff

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Management and Other Education Staff

Spain:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Spain:Management Staff for Higher Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Quality Assurance

Spain:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Educational Support and Guidance

Spain:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Spain:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Spain:Mobility and Internationalisation

Spain:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Mobility in Higher Education

Spain:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Spain:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Spain:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:National Reforms in School Education

Spain:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Spain:National Reforms in Higher Education

Spain:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Spain:European Perspective

Spain:Legislation

Spain:Institutions

Spain:Bibliography

Spain:Glossary


The Spanish education system has a decentralised management and administration model: educational powers are shared between the State General Administration (Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) and the Autonomous Communities (Departments for Education).

The general system for the transfer of funding to each Autonomous Community is settled by means of a multilateral agreement between regional governments and the State, which guarantees, through a series of mechanisms, solidarity between territories and a certain level of expenditure for the provision of the basic public service of education throughout the country.

The Autonomous Communities enjoy a high degree of management autonomy and they are therefore entitled to approve their own annual budget and to decide on the distribution of their resources.

Most of the investment in education is public, representing an 88% of the total spending on education in 2013 in the case of levels that are lower than higher education and a 69% in tertiary education.

Private expenditure comes mainly from household spending, particularly in non-university education, where household spending is equal to the total expenditure.

Proportion of public and private expenditure on education. 2013


% Public expenditure on education
% Private expenditure on education
Lower than higher education
88%
12%
Higher education
69% 31%

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of Education at a Glance 2016: OECD Indicators.

A distinction is therefore made between public and private expenditure:

  • public expenditure on education refers to the amounts targeted by public authorities. Most of it is assumed by the education authorities (the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport and the Departments for Education in each Autonomous Community), whereas the rest is provided by other authorities
  • private funding comes exclusively from private sources:
    • non-university education in public schools and publicly-funded private schools: it supplements public expenditure and covers expenses such as books and school materials, meals, transport or extracurricular activities. In private non grant-aided schools, families must pay for registration and tuition fees
    • university education: in public universities, private funding comes mainly from registration and tuition fees paid by students, the organisation of specialised courses and agreements signed with private corporations, as well as from other sources such as legacies, donations or subsidies granted by private institutions.

The annual expenditure, both public and private, per student by educational institutions is the result of dividing the total expenditure on education by the total number of students in Spain.

This expenditure per student, expressed as a percentage of GDP per capita, reflects the effort made by the country in relation to its level of development.

Tertiary education students are the ones generating the highest cost, followed by secondary and primary education students.

Annual expenditure (public and private) per student1 by educational institutions, relative to GDP per capita (from primary to tertiary education). 2013

Primary education
6 956
21
Secondary education
8 520
26
Tertiary education
12 604
28
All levels
8 755
-
1In equivalent US dollars converted using PPPs.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of Education at a Glance 2016: OECD Indicators.

Public educational expenditure in 2013 reached around EUR 44 975 million, representing 4.36% of the GDP, and was mainly distributed amongst pre-primary and primary education (30%), secondary education and vocational training (27%) and university education (20%).

Distribution of public expenditure on education according to educational activity. 2013 (in EUR thousand) (according to Autonomous Community)


Amount (in EUR thousand)
Percentage
Pre-primary and primary education
13 585 470.4
30.21%
Secondary education and vocational training
12 171 967.0
27.06%
University education1
9 173 285.5
20.40%
Specialised education
909 590.5
2.02%
Special education
1 125 984.0
2.50%
Adult education
337 307.2
0.75%
Education abroad
98 044.0
0.22%
Supplementary services
1 058 302.1
2.35%
Compensatory education
273 113.1
0.61%
Extracurricular and additional activities
405 392.4
0.90%
Teacher training and retraining
141 569.1
0.31%
Educational research
88 143.5
0.20%
General administration
879 164.7
1.95%
Other higher education
38 087.0
0.08%
Occupational training
779 437.6
1.73%
Grants and financial support
1 530 114.5
3.40%
Grants for the exemption from payment of academic fees2
-218 747.8
-0.49%
Undistributed expenses3
4 668 000.0
9.86%
Adjustment items
-1 834 242.7
-4.08%
Total 44 974 574.1
100.0%
1 It includes EUR 218 748 thousand for the exemption from payment of academic fees and EUR 1 834 243 thousand of private funding from universities.

2 The amount for these grants is paid directly to universities by the education authorities. Students who are awarded these grants are exempt from paying registration or other academic fees. For this reason, the amount for these grants has to be deducted from the total public spending for university education, so that there is no double accounting for this item.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of data from Statistics on Public Spending of the General Subdirectorate for Statistics and Studies of the Ministry of Education Culture and Sport.

Public spending on education is directed at students of the different educational stages in both public and publicly-funded private schools, by means of educational agreements and grants and financial support. In 2013, around EUR 5 651 million were allocated to publicly-funded private schools offering pre-primary and/or primary education and secondary education.

Public expenditure allocated to agreements. 2013 (in EUR thousand) (according to Autonomous Community)

Pre-primary/Primary education
2 899 979.4
Secondary education
2 430 941.8
Special education
308 796.0
Others
11 429.7
Total 5 651 146.9

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of data from Statistics on Public Spending of the General Subdirectorate for Statistics and Studies of the Ministry of Education Culture and Sport.