This page was last modified on 7 August 2016, at 22:28.

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Spain

Contents

Spain:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Spain:Historical Development

Spain:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Spain:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Spain:Political and Economic Situation

Spain:Organisation and Governance

Spain:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Spain:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Spain:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Spain:Organisation of Private Education

Spain:National Qualifications Framework

Spain:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Spain:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Spain:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Spain:Funding in Education

Spain:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Spain:Higher Education Funding

Spain:Adult Education and Training Funding

Spain:Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Primary Education

Spain:Organisation of Primary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Spain:Assessment in Primary Education

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Spain:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Vocational Lower Secondary Education: Basic Vocational Training cycles

Spain:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Higher Education

Spain:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Spain:First Cycle Programmes

Spain:Bachelor

Spain:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Spain:Second Cycle Programmes

Spain:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Spain:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Spain:Adult Education and Training

Spain:Distribution of Responsibilities

Spain:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Spain:Main Providers

Spain:Main Types of Provision

Spain:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Spain:Teachers and Education Staff

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Management and Other Education Staff

Spain:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Spain:Management Staff for Higher Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Quality Assurance

Spain:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Educational Support and Guidance

Spain:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Spain:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Spain:Mobility and Internationalisation

Spain:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Mobility in Higher Education

Spain:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Spain:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Spain:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:National Reforms in School Education

Spain:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Spain:National Reforms in Higher Education

Spain:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Spain:European Perspective

Spain:Legislation

Spain:Institutions

Spain:Bibliography

Spain:Glossary

Conditions of service for teachers of non-university educational institutions vary depending on the education level and the ownership of the educational institution. The Education Authorities, both the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (MECD) and the Regional Ministry or Department of Education of every Autonomous Community, is responsible for managing the said conditions. In addition, there are bodies for coordinating the education policy where these entities and other ones reach pacts and agreements. These bodies are, at State and regional level:

  • The Education Conference: It is constituted by different bodies of permanent cooperation and coordination among all the State Education Authorities. It has a Personnel Committee, where the General Directors of every Autonomous Community take part. This Commission agrees to call the merit-based selections, the competitive examinations and the transfer contests of civil servants. It also manages other questions that may affect teachers.
  • The General Negotiating Table of Public Authorities: Dealing with the common issues affecting all the employees of Public Authorities. It is chaired by the  General State Administration and constituted by representatives of the Autonomous Communities, the Autonomous Cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces and the most representative labour organisations. All the issues susceptible to be regulated at State level with a nature of basic regulations are negotiated in this Table and, more specifically, the global increase of the salary of the staff at the service of the corresponding Public Authorities to be included in the Project of the yearly Spanish Budget Act.
  • The General Negotiating Table in the field of the State General Administration: As a body for negotiating the conditions of service common to the civil servants of the same field, it is constituted by different tables depending on the field. Among them, the Table for teachers and teaching staff of non-university educational institutions, chaired by the MECD and  integrated by the same bodies of the previous General Table. At regional level there are also the General Negotiating Table in the Autonomous Community jurisdiction and theTable for teachers and teaching staff of public non-university educational institutions, chaired by the regional Education Authority, constituted by the same bodies than the State Table and with similar tasks..

Planning policy

There is a planning policy for taking decisions, both at State and regional level, in terms of teachers. In order of importance, the parameters usually considered to implement this policy are: inclusion of education reforms, evolution of the number of students by education level, general demographic evolution, migratory movements, evolution of the number of teachers by education level and by subject and unemployment rate. Others can be added.

Among the goals of this policy it is possible to point out the following ones:

  • To meet the emerging needs.
  • To assure enough flexibility to adapt teachers to the new specialities required by the education system, in relation with the continuing and increasing request of new degrees, university or professional.
  • To achieve that the adaptation required by the preceding paragraphs is made assuring job stability of the sector.

Some of the measures for reaching these goals are the restriction of the number of new positions for public employment, the internal promotion for career civil servants or the acquisition of new specialities by teachers.

Among others, the following issues are subject of negotiation in the respective jurisdiction:

  • The implementation of salary increases for the staff working in the Public Authorities established in the Spanish Budget Act and the Autonomous Communities.
  • The establishment and application of the civil servants' additional salary.
  • The regulations setting the general criteria for access, career, provision, systems for posts classification, and plans and instruments for planning human resources.
  • The rules establishing the general criteria and mechanisms in terms of exercise evaluation.
  • The general criteria of plans and funds for internal training and promotion.
  • The proposals on union and participation rights.
  • The issues established in the regulations for occupational risk prevention.
  • The general criteria on public employment offers.
  • The subjects regarding labour calendars, schedules, working days, holidays, permissions, functional and geographical mobility, as well as the general criteria on strategic planning of human resources, in those aspects affecting public civil servants' work conditions.

The pacts and agreements reached in the corresponding Negotiating Tables with work general subjects and conditions common to the civil servants and working staff must be applied to civil servants according to the provisions of the Act on the Basic Statute of Public Employment and to the teaching staff according to the provisions of the Workers Statute. If there are not disagreements, these ones are extended every year.

From the pacts and agreements reached and the information obtained on the needs of teachers of every public educational institution in their jurisdiction, Education Authorities prepare and approve the calls for accessing teaching public civil service, as well as the calls for transfer contests of teaching staff within their jurisdiction.

The main means for diffusing and accessing the information on planning policy are the official gazettes and journals of the Public Authorities, specialised publications and websites consultation.

Entry to the profession

Access to teaching profession varies in accordance with the ownership of the educational institution and with the education level provided.

For entering to the teaching profession in public educational institutions candidates must pass a merit-based selection and a competitive examination established for each civil servant teacher bodies. As for the education levels, teachers belonging to the school teachers body teach in Pre-Primary and Primary Education; teachers belonging to the senior professors body and Teachers of Secondary Education and, as an exception, in some subjects of these levels, teachers belonging to the technic teachers of Vocational Training  body teach in Lower Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) and Bachillerato. Teachers of Intermediate and Advanced Vocational Training can belong, depending on the module that they teach, to the senior professorsand Secondary Education teachers body or to the technic teachers of Vocational Training body who, in certain cases, can also teach some subjects of ESO and Bachillerato. As an exception, specialist teachers can teach in specific modules. These teachers are currently working, but it is not necessary for them to hold a degree. This access is made in working or administrative regime. In Specialised Education the access to the different teaching bodies or professional category is similar to the senior professors and teachers of Secondary Education body. As an exception, specialist teachers can also access.

Selective processes for accessing the said bodies are made through a public call, guaranteeing the principles of equality, merit, ability and publicity. Basic and common aspects of these processes are established at State level, being specified in the basis of the respective call of every education authority: entry requirements of the selection process to gain access to the body of school teachers (according to Autonomous Community), secondary education teachers (according to Autonomous Community) and technical teachers of vocational training concerning nationality, age, health, personal and professional circumstances, as well as other requirements related to the specific qualification required for the educational level where candidates want to teach. The tests aim at evaluating applicants' suitability and they are called in accordance with the teaching specialities. They cover a list of topics previously established so that applicants can prepare them.

The selection process is carried out through a competitive examination based on merits and it is made up of the following phases:

  • Competitive examination phase: Specific knowledges of the teaching speciality are evaluated, as well as the pedagogic aptitude and the mastery of the necessary techniques for the teaching exercise.
  • Merit-based selection phase: Candidates’ prior teaching experience, academic education and other merits are evaluated in accordance with the scales established in the different calls to gain access to the body of school teachers (according to Autonomous Community), secondary education teachers (according to Autonomous Community) and technical teachers of vocational training.
  • Traineeship period: It aims at checking the aptitude for teaching of the selected applicants.

An applicant is selected as long as he/she has passed all the tests of the competitive examination phase. The qualification of the merit-based selection phase is only applied if applicants have passed the competitive examination phase. The number of selected applicants never exceeds the number of positions published.

In publicly-funded private schools, selection criteria for teachers have a public nature and they are established by the School Board, the school head and the owner of the school. Instead, in non publicly-funded private schools the selection process is carried out by the owner of the school and their recruitment adapts to the provisions of the Workers Statute.

Induction

Before exercising as teachers, applicants must take and pass a traineeship period, different in each educational institution.

In public schools applicants carry out their traineeship period as a part of the process for accessing public service, before being named career civil servant teachers. It is a tutored and paid period before joining teaching. Every Autonomous Community regulate it in their jurisdiction from the State regulations, and they set the length, which can range between three months and a school year.

The traineeship period is monitored by experienced teachers, responsible for planning and teaching. The tutor is a teacher belonging to the same body and speciality than the applicant and, preferably, to the Body of senior professors. His/her functions are to assess the trainee civil servant in every important aspect for the right development of the teaching activity, to monitor it and to evaluate this period. Also, trainee teachers make a final report assessing the difficulties found and the support received.

Apart from teaching, the trainee teacher carry out the following activities:

  • Usual meetings for discussing progressions or problems with the tutor.
  • Monitored activities regarding classroom programme, students teaching and assessment.

The Autonomous Communities establish the mandatory or non-mandatory nature of the training courses aimed at teachers and their themes. Their length varies between the different Education Authorities and they can be provided in different modalities: in-person ain the educational institutione, blended or distance, or in the Teachers and Resources Centres. In addition, the trainee teacher can make remarks in other teachers' classrooms and, mainly, in the classroom of the teacher-tutor.

At the end of the traineeship period applicants are evaluated in terms of 'pass' or 'non-pass'. If the evaluation is positive, candidates are named career civil servant teachers. If they are evaluated as 'non-pass'  the Authority can allow to repeat this subject once. Those who do not incorporate or do not pass it for the second time lose all rights to be designed career civil servant teachers.

The Education Authorities can grant exception from the traineeship period to those candidates who have passed the phase of competitive examination based on merits and who prove that they have taught, at least, for a school year.

In publicly-funded private schools there is a probation period lasting four months for all the new teaching staff. In non-publicly funded private schools this period lasts three months.

Professional status

The general status is different depending on the school ownership and on the contractual relationship established.

The teaching staff of public schools has the status of career civil servant, that is, they have an indefinite contractual relationship with the Education Authority. Their working conditions are regulated by their own regulations, as well as the basic legislation applicable to the civil servants of every Public Authority. The Education Authorities also adopt the appropriate measures for assuring the coverage of civil responsibility derived from their professional exercise. As an exception, and depending on the needs of the Education System, these institutions can have teaching staff paid by the Public Authorities through any modality of recruitment foreseen in the work legislation. The contract can be fixed term, open-ended or temporary. This work category includes:

  • Religion teachers, subject to be compulsorily provided by educational institutions, but elective for students: Teachers must meet the same qualification requirements, or equivalent, than the career civil servant teachers of the same education stage; they must be proposed by the Authority of the concerning religious faith and obtain from it the  Declaration of suitability or the equivalent certificate, all this prior to recruitment. These teachers can teach in the second cycle of Pre-Primary Education, in Primary Education and in Lower Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO). Their hiring is indefinite but, in the event of replacement of the ownership, the contract is for a fixed-term, specified on it.
  • Specialist teachers: On the basis of their qualification and the existing needs, they can incorporate exceptionally to teaching and for specific modules or subjects. This incorporation is made in a working or administrative regime, adapting to the Workers Statute, to the collective agreement of the sector and to the provisions of the employment contract. The hiring is temporary, full  time or part time. In any case, it cannot last more than a year, extendable up to a maximum of three years according to the conditions established by each Education Authority.

In publicly-funded private schools and non-publicly funded private schools teaching staff works as an employee. Their working conditions are subject to the provisions of the Workers Statute and to the collective agreements of the sector, as well as to the  stipulations in each employment contract.

The 2007 Act on the Basic Statute of Public Employment establishes the rights that all the staff working in the Public Authority must comply with, specifying the code of conduct and the ethical principles to be followed. In addition, there is a code of ethics for teaching profession, passed by the General Council of the State Schools of Doctors and Bachelors in Philosophy and Letters and in Sciences, in November 2010. It contains teachers' fundamental rights when exercising their functions with students, families and tutors, the educational institutions, colleagues, the profession itself and society.

Replacement measures

Temporary replacement of teachers is different depending on the institution ownership.

Regional Education Authorities regulate the participation, composition, organisation and extension of the applicants lists to exercise as temporary teachers in public institutions, as well as their appointment and termination of employment. These temporary civil servant teachers are applicants having carried out the process of competitive examination based on merits, but who have not obtained a position as career civil servants. They are summoned to fill vacancies that cannot be filled by career civil servants. They transitory replace career civil servants and carry out temporary programmes or collaborate for developing tasks when these ones are excessive or pile up. They are selected according to their merits, by temporally drawing up waiting lists, one for each speciality, showing a ranked list of the selected applicants. To establish the ranking, previous teaching experience, academic training and qualifications obtained in the selection process are taken into account.

The general regime of career civil servant teachers is applied to this staff, although the contractual relationship with the Education Authority lasts an academic year as a maximum. Prior to the start of each school year, the temporary positions that need to be filled are assigned. During the school year  there may be vacancies that must be covered by temporary teachers but, at the end of the school year, the vacancy coverage or the replacement ends, so the contract is not renewed. Likewise, if at the end of the school year a position must be filled on more than one occasion, the temporary teacher replacing the civil servant teacher is not usually the same, since the contract for the same position is not renewed. Once replacement is finished, the temporary teacher is included in the temporary teachers list for a future appointment.

The waiting lists of each Teaching body and speciality stop taking effect if a new list is published. This list is drawn up when a new selection process for entering the same Body and speciality ends. The applicants lists are extended if during the school year a selection process has not been published, maintaining the order of preference of applicants.

In publicly-funded private schools, substitute teachers can be hired for covering vacancies or for replacement.  Vacancies are filled by staff belonging to the same group, based on the criteria of ability, qualification, aptitude and seniority. In case, in view of the owner, there is no staff meeting these suitability requirements, they are filled in accordance with the legislation in force at any given time. In private schools, the relevant collective agreement establishes that vacancies of teaching staff must be filled, if possible, by teachers belonging to lower categories of the same group, according to their abilities, qualification and seniority in the educational institution. In both type of schools (publicly-funded private schools and private schools), in the case of recruitment or in the event of a vacancy, and in accordance with certain criteria, temporary or part-time staff have priority provided that permanent staff cannot not have access.

Supporting measures for teachers

The 2013 Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education, which modifies the 2006 Education Act, establishes that the Education Authorities must ensure that teaching staff receive a consideration, treatment and respect befitting the social importance of their task. Thus, Education Authorities have emphasized the boost of new measures aimed at the social recognition and support of teachers and the improvement of their working conditions.

Measures are different according to the ownership of the educational institution and the time having passed since the teacher entered the public function.

In public educational institutions there are several general supporting measures, targeted at all the teachers, among which trainee teachers. Education Authorities ensure their proper protection, juridical assistance and liability coverage in connection with their professional activity. Education Authorities are also responsible for favoring:

  • The recognition of tutorial activity, through personal or economic incentives.
  • The recognition of teachers' work, taking into account their dedication to the educational institution and to the implementation of educational innovation plan, through economic and professional incentives.
  • The recognition of teachers who work in bilingual schools and teach their subject in a foreign language.
  • The development of paid leave, with the purpose of promoting activities for training and education research and innovation.
  • The reduction of the taught time for those teachers older than 55 who so require, or their partial substitution for other kind activities.

On the other hand, the Autonomous Communities prepare their own plans for assessing teaching public activity and they must ensure that the results are taken into account to improve teachers' working conditions. These plans, that must be public, include the aims and assessment criteria, as well as the manner on which teachers, the education community and the Education Authority itself participate in the assessment process. Likewise, they promote teachers' evaluation on a voluntary basis.

Salaries

Teachers' salaries are different depending on the ownership of the educational institution.

In public educational institutions salaries are established according to the secondment of the Body or category to which they belong to a specific Subgroup or Professional classification group; the seniority (bonus for every three-year period in service); the category or professional level (additional remuneration attached to a post) and the work carried out (specific additional remuneration). On this manner, salaries for career civil servant teachers are classified into:

Basic rewards: Paid according to the secondment of their body or category and to their seniority. They are:

  • Basic salary: Standard amount set at national level for every civil servants belonging to the same Subgroup or Professional classification group.
  • Bonus for every three-year periods in service: Amount established at national level for every Group or Professional classification subgroup every three years of activity.
  • Additional rewards: Paid according to the characteristics of the jobs, the professional career or the development,  performance or results achieved by the civil servant. They are:

1. Additional remuneration attached to a post: salary according to the category or professional level reached by a civil servant within the administrative career system.

− Secondary Education senior professor: Level 26.

− Teacher of Secondary Education, Official Languages School, Plastic Arts and Design, and Music and Performing Arts: Level 24.

− Vocational Training Technician Teacher: Level 24.

− School teacher: Level 21.

2. Specific additional remuneration: remuneration concerning specific conditions of some posts, as the implementation of single government bodies or singular teaching posts; carrying out of the education inspectorate; due to lifelong training (amount allocated for every five or six years in service, related to lifelong training. It varies in each Education Authority) or by tutorial activity. This remuneration includes two different ones in each Autonomous Community: a General Remuneration for every teacher depending on the teaching bodies and scales to which he/she belongs; and a Singular Remuneration related to the specific conditions of each position.

Extraordinary pay: Additional bonus to the ordinary one received in summer and Christmas. Each of them consists of a monthly allowance of basic rewards (basic salary and bonus for every three-year periods in service) corresponding to the secondment Subgroup or Group, and of some of the additional rewards entitled, that is, the additional remuneration attached to a post and some specific additional remuneration.

Teachers salaries explained below refer to the minimum salaries established for the whole State, although the amount of the previously specified ones and their number:

Minimum salary of career civil servant teachers

CONCEPT
GROUP A GROUP B
Subgroup A1 Subgroup A2

Senior professors body

(Level 26)

Teachers Body of Secondary Education, Official Languages School, Plastic Arts and Design, and Music and Performing Arts

(Level 24)

Technic teachers body of Vocational Training

(Level 24)

Senior professors body

(Level 21)

MONTHLY ORDINARY PAY
Base salary
1 109.05 €
958.98 €
Bonus for every three-year periods in service (seniority) 42,65 € 34.77 €
Additional remuneration attached to a post 698.20 € 582.92 € 582,92 € 473.35 €
Specific additional remuneration General Remuneration 419.95 € 370.47 € 373,12 € 373.12 €
Singular Remuneration  By tutorial activity 50.51 40.01
By lifelong training (*) 37.61 - 127.72
Compensatory Remuneration (**)
107.46 €
EXTRAORDINARY PAYS (***)
Base salary 684.36 € 699.38 €
Bonus for every three-year periods in service (seniority) 26.31 € 25.35 €
Additional remuneration attached to a post 716.57 € 598.26 € 598.26 € 485.80 €
Specific additional remuneration General Remuneration 431 € 380.21 € 382.93 € 382.93 €
Singular remuneration By tutorial activity 51.83 41.06
By lifelong training (*)
38.59 € - 131.08

(*): Pro rata amounts in five-year periods. Each period correspond to the number of the amount allocated for every five or six years in service consolidated. The interval appearing in the table correspond to the minimum and maximum amounts that can be received with this additional salary. (**): To be received by the civil servants of the school teachers body, in 1st and 2nd year of ESO. (***): The data in the table, concerning the additional remuneration attached to a post and the different remunerations of the specific additional remuneration, correspond to the average mean calculated from the amount to be received in each of the two extraordinary pays, in June and December.

Source: Prepared by Eurydice Spain-REDIE (CNIIE-MECD) from the regulations in force.

For further information on teachers salary see the salaries web page of Eurydice.

Temporary civil servant teachers receive the basic salary and the extraordinary pay corresponding the secondment Subgroup or Group, and the additional salary entitled. The salary for the teaching staff is established in line with national labour laws, the applicable group agreement and the employment contract.

The payment system for teachers of private schools is regulated by the different labour conventions and agreements. In publicly-funded private schools, the minimum salary for the staff in the jurisdiction of these agreements is set in their salary tables, and it is constituted by: base salary, additional rewards, bonus for every three-year periods in service and two extraordinary payments. These awards are different depending on the Autonomous Community and they are paid by the corresponding Education Authority as delegated payment and on behalf of the owner of the institution.

The awards of the staff in the 9th Collective agreement on private education without grant-aided or subsidised levels (publicly-funded private schools) comprise: base salary, a productivity bonus, a supplement for professional development (received by training and knowledge acquired, being necessary the verification of 100 hours as a minimum every five-year period) and extrasalary transport bonus.

Working time and holidays

Both working time and holidays are different depending on the Autonomous Community and the educational institution ownership.

Working time

In general, working time in public educational institutions is 37.5 hours per week, of which:

Number of hours
Pre-Primary Education
Primary Education Secondary Education
Per week Per year
Per week
Per year  Per week
Per year 
Taught time1 25 875 25 875 20 600
Hours to be spent at school 2 30 1 140 30 1 140 30 1 140
Global working day 2 37.5 1 425 37.5 1 425 37.5 1 425

1The calculation of taught time is made with the minimum number of school days in the Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education, 175 school days, although in the calendars established by the Education Authorities this number is increased with light differences depending on the Autonomous Community.
2The hours to be spent at school and the global working day are calculated taking into account the 190 days between September 2st and June 30th, without including Christmas and Holy week and bank holidays..

Source: Prepared by Eurydice Spain-REDIE (CNIIE, MECD) from the regulations in force.

Teachers of Pre-Primary and Primary Education establish 25 teaching hours per week as a minimum at State level, while teachers of Secondary Education, together with the rest of studies regulated by the LOE, have 20 teaching hours per week as a minimum at State level. However, in most of the Autonomous Communities teacher must spend at school 30 hours per week, including teaching hours and hours to stay at school, for the three mentioned levels. These hours are intended to coordination meetings, interviews with parents, programmes with the classroom activity, assessment sessions, guards or the implementation of extra-curricular and complementary activities.

Seven hours and a half of the working time are to free discretion and they do not take place at school. They are aimed at continuing professional development, classes preparation, exams correction, meeting, evaluations or extracurricular activities with students.

The working time of the teaching staff of publicly-funded private schools includes a specific amount of hours devoted to teaching (teaching, written or oral tests for students and academic supervision of the group of students) and to non-teaching activities (class preparation, in-between class periods, evaluation meetings, corrections, etc.). The annual working time of the teaching staff amounts to 1 180 hours: 850 hours are devoted to teaching (a maximum of 25 hours per week) and 330 to non-teaching activities (distributed over the school year). The annual working time of the teaching staff of the first cycle of pre-primary education (0-3 years of age) is 1 362 hours for school teachers (a maximum of 32 hours per week) and 1 620 hours for educators (a maximum of 38 hours per week).

In private schools, 27 hours per week plus 237 additional hours a year can be distributed over the year, providing that the overall working time does not exceed 8 hours per day. In addition, 50 hours a year are devoted to training and updating.

Holidays

Public educational institutions have 22 working days in summer each calendar year (Saturdays are not considered as working days), or the days proportionally corresponding if the service during the year is lower. Notwithstanding, the working calendar adapts to the yearly provisions of the relevant Education Authority. On this manner they are off duty from July 1st to August 31st. In addition, they have holidays at Easter (around a week) and at Christmas (around 2 weeks), apart from the bank holidays established at State, regional and local level.

In publicly-funded private schools teachers have one month off, preferably in July or in August, every full year of active service, or the corresponding days in proportion if the time worked is less than a year. In addition, the teaching staff of the first cycle or pre-primary education have 15 working days distributed over the school year, whereas the rest of the teaching staff have an additional month, without activity and paid, to be taken consecutively with the month off (between July 1st to August 31st). However, of this additional month, up to a maximum of 40 hours can be used for non-teaching activities, within the first eight days of July or the last eight days of August. During Christmas and Easter, all the teaching staff of this type of schools are entitled to as many holidays as pupils, apart from the bank holidays established at State, regional and local level.

In private schools, teachers have one month off, preferably in summer, every full year of active service, or the corresponding days in proportion if the time worked is less than a year. 50% of the teaching staff enjoy two weeks of additional holidays in summer,except in boarding schools or schools organising summer courses. In this case, the teaching staff receive an additional remuneration. They also have 5 working days per year, preferably in summer, and Easter, Christmas and bank holidays established at State, regional and local level.

Promotion, advancement

Promotion plays a decisive role in the professional career of teachers.

The criteria taken into account for the promotion of civil servant teachers are, among others, ability, merits, seniority and their own choices. To be eligible for promotion, candidates must hold the qualification required, meet the requirement demanded and pass the tests established by the relevant Education Authority. The possibilities of promotion are the following ones:

  • Access to the leadership team in the educational institutions: Head teacher, head of studies, secretary or other positions established by the Education Authorities.
  • Access to a body of the same group and level of additional remuneration attached to a post: All the career civil servants holding the qualification required  and proving, if applicable, that they know the co-official language of the relevant Autonomous Community can access. In this process there are not limits in terms of seniority. The access system consists of a merit-based selection and a test. An example is accessing from the Body of senior professors (Group A, Subgroup A1, level 26 of Additional remuneration attached to a post) to the Body of Education Inspectorate (Group A, Subgroup A1, level 26 of Additional remuneration attached to a post).
  • Access to other teaching bodies included in a group of higher classification: School teachers, technic teachers of Vocational Training and school teachers of the Plastic Arts and Design Workshop who want to access the bodies of teachers of Secondary Education and Plastic Arts and Design must hold the qualification required, having worked as career civil servants for six years and proving, if applicable, the knowledge of the co-official language of the relevant Autonomous Community. The access system consists of a merit-based selection and a test. For the specialities provided in the respective publications, the test can include practical contents.
  • Access to the Body of senior professors of Secondary Education, Music and Performing Arts, Plastic Arts and Design, and Language Official Schools: Teachers of Secondary Education , Music and Performing Arts, Plastic Arts and Design, and Language Official Schools can access the relevant Body if they hold the appropriate qualification, they belong to the corresponding Body of Teachers and they have been working at least for eight years in the said Body as career civil servants and they prove that they know the co-official language of the relevant Autonomous Community. The access system consists of a competitive examination assessing several merits related to the scientific and teaching updating, the participation in education projects, the teaching activity or the artistic career of candidates.
  • Access to the Body of education inspectors: All the civil servant teachers holding the qualification required, having worked as public civil servant teachers at least for six years and proving, if applicable, that they know the co-official language of the relevant Autonomous Community. The access system consists of a merit-based selection, a competitive examination and a traineeship period.
  • University teaching as an associate professor: This facilitates the joining to the university departments, full and part time, of the civil servant teachers of non-university levels, according to the requirements established in every agreement between the Education Authorities and the universities.
  • Duties of the Education Authority: Through placements in different modalities, according to the place and the nature of the positions (central services of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, or of the Autonomous Communities, teachers institutions, etc.).

In publicly-funded private schools and in non-publicly funded private schools advancements is mainly regulated through the employment contract.

Mobility and tranfers

The Education Authorities publish transfer competitions only for career civil servant teachers with the purpose of assuring their mobility in the whole national territory and of fill the vacancies established in the public educational institutions. On this manner, the possible competition of the civil servants of an Autonomous Community for  filling vacancies in other Autonomous Communities is guaranteed, as well as the award of those ones resulting from the competition itself.

These competitions include a single scale of merits, among which the courses on training and improvement course, the seniority, the belonging to some of the Bodies of senior professors and voluntary evaluation. State transfer competitions are published every two years and, during the school years where they do not take place, the Autonomous Communities can prepare procedures for providing positions regarding their jurisdiction. This is all without prejudice to the carrying out of processes for personnel redeployment in any moment.

When it comes to the salaries of teachers who are transferred, they remain largely unchanged, as those components that are established at State level (basic salary, allowance linked to the level of the post held, general component of the specific allowance, etc.) and at the institution of origin (a bonus that increases every 3 years of service, an amount awarded after 5 years in the teaching profession that is linked to continuing professional development, etc.) do not vary.  The only allowances that may vary are the ones paid by the Autonomous Communities

Dismissal

Reasons for dismissal are different depending on the ownership of the educational institution.

In public educational institutions, the loss of status of career civil servant can be due to:

  • The renunciation of the status of career civil servant.
  • The loss of nationality.
  • The full retirement of the career civil servant.
  • The disciplinary measure with the firm nature of separation from the service.
  • The primary or secondary penalty of firm absolute or special disqualification for public position.

As for temporary civil servant teachers, the end of the reason resulting in their appointment. Regarding teaching staff, the employment contract can be terminated for the following reasons:

  • When the relevant Education Authority adopts a resolution in this sense before taking disciplinary proceedings.
  • Due to the revocation of accreditation or the eligibility for teaching religion by the religious denomination having awarded it.
  • For the rest of  termination reasons provided in the Royal Law Decree 1/1995.
  • As for foreign workers, due to the termination or non renewal of the authorisation of residence or residence and employment.

In publicly-funded private schools and private schools, the employment contract can be terminated when it expires, for breach of the contract or during the usual probation period at the beginning of a contract.

Retirement and pensions

Teachers' retirement and pensions are different depending on the ownership of the educational institution where they teach and the type of Social Security scheme, general or special, to which they contribute.

In general, career civil servant teachers in public educational institutions contribute to a special Social Security scheme, the State Pensioners Scheme, which covers the risks of old age, disability, and death and survival. Thus, they can have access to three types of retirement:

  • Compulsory retirement: It is automatic if they fulfil the requirements established: Be 65 years old and have completed 15 years of service in the public administration. However, when attaining the compulsory retirement age, if they prove that they have completed 12 years of service, but have not completed the 15 years required, they may request an extension, which will exclusively cover the period needed to complete the number of years required and will be granted provided that the person concerned is fit for duty. If they request it, they can continue working until they reach the age of 70.
  • Voluntary retirement: At the request of the civil servant, if they meet the following requirements: Be 60 years old and prove that they have completed 30 years of service in the public administration.
  • Due to declaration of permanent inability, or to the recognition of an absolute permanent disability pension or total permanent disability: If they are affected by injury or have an irreversible illness that is sufficiently advanced to render them unable to perform the duties of their body or scale.

In order to receive the maximum retirement pension, whether compulsory or voluntary, it is necessary to have completed at least 35 years of service in the public administration.

The calculation of the final amount of the annual pension depends on the Social Security schemes to which they have contributed and, within the State Pensioners Scheme, it depends on:

  • Whether they have performed their duties in the same body, scale, post, job or category, between their entry into service and the date of their retirement.
  • The number of years of service.

New State legislation was passed at the end of 2010 by which, as from 1 January 2011, everyone who becomes a civil servant, including career civil servant teachers, will be covered by the General Social Security Scheme. This transfer takes into account the specificities of the State Pensioners Scheme regarding both the age of compulsory retirement and the medical tribunals responsible for the declaration of inability of the civil servant.

Teachers in publicly-funded private schools and private schools contribute to the General Social Security Scheme and may have access to the following types of retirement:

  • Compulsory retirement: If they meet the requirements set out, which are:
  1. Contribute to the General Social Security Scheme and be registered with a Social Security scheme, or in an equivalent situation, at the time of retirement. However, teachers who are not in any of these situations may have access to a retirement pension if they fulfil the requirements mentioned below.
  2. Have reached the retirement age and the corresponding contribution period. For the year 2014, those who have paid contributions for at least 35 years and 6 months may retire at the age of 65; those who have paid contributions for less than 35 years and 6 months may retire at the age of 65 and 2 months.
  3. Have paid contributions for at least 15 years, 2 of them in the 15 years immediately preceding their retirement. In the case of those who are registered with a Social Security scheme, or in an equivalent situation, and without the obligation to contribute, the 2-year period must be included in the 15 years before the end of their obligation to pay contributions.

Teachers with a temporary disability who meet the abovementioned conditions may also have access to this type of retirement.

  • Early retirement. Concerning early retirement, there are the following modalities of access:

1. Because of termination of service due to reasons other than the worker's will, in which case the following requirements apply:
- Be no more than 4 years younger than the applicable retirement age, which, for the year 2014, is: Those who have paid contributions for at least 35 years and 6 months may retire at the age of 61; those who have paid contributions for less than 35 years and 6 months may retire at the age of 61 and 2 months.
- Be registered as jobseekers with the employment service during, at least, 6 months immediately prior to the retirement application.
- Prove that they have been paying contributions for at least 33 years.
- That the termination of service results from a context of business restructuring making impossible to continue the employment relationship. The reasons for terminating the employment contract that can entitle to access this modality of early retirement  are: Collective dismissal for economic, technical, organisational or production reasons, authorised by the employment authority; objective dismissal for economic, technical, organisational or production reasons; termination of the contract by a court decision; death, retirement or disability of the individual entrepreneur, or extinguishment of the legal personality of the employer; or termination of the employment contract due to force majeure proven by the employment authority. In order to have access to this type of retirement in the cases indicated, workers have to prove that they have received compensation on termination of the contract, or that they have pursued a court action claiming this compensation or appealing against the termination of the contract.

2. The employment relationship termination of the working woman resulting from being a victim of gender-based violence.

3. For voluntary early access to retirement, according to the following requirements:
- Be no more than 2 years younger than the applicable retirement age, which, for the year 2014, is: Those who have paid contributions for at least 35 years and 3 months may retire at the age of 63; those who have paid contributions for less than 35 years and 6 months may retire at the age of 63 and 2 months.
- Prove that they have been paying contributions for at least 35 years.

In this type of retirement, the amount of the pension must exceed that of the minimum pension the person concerned should receive, due to his/her family situation, upon attaining the age of 65. Otherwise, it will not be possible to have access to this formula.

The minimum age for access to all types of early retirement may be lowered in the case of workers with a degree of disability of 65% or higher, or a degree of 45% or higher, provided that these disabilities are defined in the relevant regulations and there is evidence to indicate that they may result in a reduction of their life expectancy.

Under no circumstances may workers under the age of 52 have access to early retirement.

  • Partial retirement. They can access this kind of retirement under the following conditions:

1. Without the need for simultaneously holding a ‘relay contract’, as long as beneficiaries meet the requirements established for access to compulsory retirement and there is a reduction in their working day between 25% as a minimum and 50% as a maximum. The said proportions are understood for the working day of a comparable full-time worker.

2. When there is a ‘relay contract’, full-time workers can access partial retirement if they meet the following requirements:
- For the year 2014, the following ages have been established: 61 years and 2 months, if  they have paid contributions for at least 33 years and 3 months; 61 years and 3 months, if they have paid contributions for 33 years. This age range does not apply to workers who had the status of members of a mutual society on 1 January 1967, who must be 60.
- Prove a seniority in the company of, at least, 6 years immediately prior to partial retirement.
- Have their working day and salary reduced between 25% as a minimum and 50% as a maximum, or 75% as a maximum if the successor workers have been hired full-time through an open-ended contract and they fulfil the remaining requirements. The said proportions are understood for the working day of a comparable full-time worker.
- Prove that they have been paying contributions for 33 years. In the case of workers with a degree of disability of 33% or higher, the number of years required is 25.
- That there is a correspondence between the contribution bases of the partially retired worker and his/her replacement.

The ‘relay contract’ must comply with the following rules:
- It has to be concluded with workers who are unemployed or who had entered into a fixed-term contract with the company.
- It has to be indefinite or, at least, equal to the time remaining for the worker replaced to reach the compulsory retirement age. If, on reaching that age, the partially retired worker continues in the company, the ‘relay contract’ may be extended on an annual basis, dying in any case a year after the worker replaced reached compulsory retirement.
- If the reduction of the working day and salary is of 75% as a maximum, the ‘relay contract’ must have, at least, a duration which results from adding 2 years to the time remaining for the worker replaced to reach the compulsory retirement age. If the contract terminated before reaching the minimum duration, the employer is obliged to conclude a new contract along the same lines for the time remaining.

The ‘relay contract’, except in the case of the reduction of 75% as a maximum, can be full-time or part-time. In any case, the working day must be, at least, equal to the reduction agreed by the worker replaced. The working day of the relief worker may complete or be combined with that of the replaced worker.

The job of the relief worker may be the same as that of the worker replaced.