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Spain:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

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Spain:Teachers and Education Staff

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Management and Other Education Staff

Spain:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Spain:Management Staff for Higher Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Quality Assurance

Spain:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Educational Support and Guidance

Spain:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Spain:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Spain:Mobility and Internationalisation

Spain:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Mobility in Higher Education

Spain:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Spain:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Spain:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:National Reforms in School Education

Spain:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Spain:National Reforms in Higher Education

Spain:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Spain:European Perspective

Spain:Legislation

Spain:Institutions

Spain:Bibliography

Spain:Glossary

The conditions of service for academic staff working in Higher Education vary depending on if they teach in University Education or Non-University Education.

For detailed information on the conditions of service for the academic staff of Non-University Education, Advanced Vocational Training and Advanced Artistic Education see the article on Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education.

In University Education, the State establishes the framework laws and the Autonomous Communities are responsible for their implementation, according to the provisions in their Statute of Autonomy. In their turn, Universities have institutional autonomy, ensuring on this manner academic, study and research freedom, as well as their autonomy in the administration and management of their own resources.

Apart from the basic regulations applicable to civil servants of all Public Authorities, the legal framework regulating the conditions of service for university teaching staff, both civil servants and hired are the 2001 Organic Act on Universities (LOU) and the 2007 Organic Act modifying the LOU (LOMLOU). These acts regulate working time and duties, organisation of teaching, salaries, full-time recruitment of associate professors, or the procedure for evaluating the research activity. 

Finally the Statute of University Teaching and Research Staff will be soon enacted. Its main goals are to promote the mobility of the teaching and research staff, as well as the regulation of a civil service career structure based on teaching or research merit and to regulate the conditions under which university teaching or research staff may participate in the management and exploitation of their research results.

Planning policy

The Education Authorities, both the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (MECD), the Regional Ministry or Department of Education of each Autonomous Community, are responsible for managing the conditions of service for professors of university institutions. There are also several bodies for coordinating the education policy where these entities and other ones reach agreements on the teaching staff. For detailed information on these bodies, see the article on Conditions of service for teachers working in early childhood and school education.

Within the General Negotiating tables, both in the State General Authority and in the Autonomous Community, there is a Sectoral Table for the civil servants of Universities, where the aspects concerning the university field are dealt with.

Apart from the bodies for non-university levels, there are other coordination bodies meaningful for the university planning policy:

  • At State level:

1. Council of universities: It is the body for academic coordination, cooperation, query and proposal in terms of University Education. Some of its functions are: to advise in terms of University Education as required by the MECD, the General Conference on University Policy or, sometimes the Autonomous Communities; and to make proposals to the Government regarding the university system and the general Conference on University Policy. It is made up by the Minister, who chairs it, the Chancellors of the universities and five members appointed by the President of the Council.

2. General Conference on University Policy: It is the body for agreement, coordination and cooperation of the general university policy, without prejudice of its functions assigned to the coordination bodies of the Autonomous Communities. Some of its functions are: the planning, report, query and advice on general and multiannual programme of University Education, covering human, material and financial resources, necessary for the university public service. it is made up by the person of the Ministry responsible for university matters, who chairs it, by the people in charge of University Education in the Governing Councils of the Autonomous Communities, and by five members designed by the President of the Conference.

  • At regional level, the Regional Ministries or Departments of Education have Secretaries or General Directorates of Universities, regulating different aspects regarding the universities of their jurisdiction.
  • At university level, there is the Governing Council, a collegiate body for governing and representing in public universities. It is the highest governing body establishing the guidelines and programmes for universities, in terms of studies organisation, research, human and financial resources and budgeting. it is constituted by the Chancellor, who chairs it, the General Secretary and the Managing Director, and by a maximum of 50 members representing the university community, in line with the provisions of its statutes.

Once they have reached the necessary agreements, the universities themselves, depending on their needs, publish their own public vacancies for teaching staff, both for the teaching bodies and the staff on a contractual basis.

Entry to the profession

Entry to the teaching activity varies according to the ownership of the university.

The access to vacant teaching posts at public universities can be covered by career civil servants or by contracted professors. In both cases, entry is carried out through a merit competition.

Before taking part in the selection process, candidates who want to access the Civil Servant Teaching Bodies must have a national accreditation regulated and defined by the level of the Body and the knowledge area or areas they want to access. This accreditation system implies a preliminary assessment of the merits and competencies of the candidates, so that the selection will be carried out under the best conditions of efficiency, transparency and objectivity. The academic, professional, teaching and research merits of the candidates, as well as their academic and scientific management merits, are assessed by an accreditation committee of the scientific and academic field in which the candidate wants to be accredited. Each committee must be comprised mainly of university senior professors (or researchers or experts with the equivalent status, representing two thirds of the total number of members of the committee) and university senior lecturers (or researchers with the equivalent status, representing one third of the total number of members of the committee). Other research staff and internationally renowned experts can also be members of the committees. The number of full members of each committee varies depending on the internal diversity of each academic and scientific field, as well as on the expected number of applications, which should never be less than 7 or more than 13. Every committee will have a sub-committee, comprised of university senior professors, research teachers and internationally renowned experts with equivalent status. This sub-committee has the exclusive competence to evaluate and decide upon applications for accreditation as university senior professors.

Subsequently, universities announce the corresponding entry competition regulated on the grounds of the corresponding announcement and the statutes of the university making the call. The announcement, made by the Rector, establishes the number of vacancies, indicating the level of the Teaching Body, the knowledge area and the teaching and research duties to be carried out by candidates who obtain the post. After presenting and discussing about the relevant subject or specialty, the selection committees made up for the competition submit to the Chancellor a list with all the candidates ranked in order of preference for their appointment, without exceeding the number of vacant positions established in the terms of the public announcement for the competitive process. The Chancellor appoints the selected candidate in line with the proposal done, orders the registration in the corresponding staff register and their announcement in the Spanish Official Gazette and in the gazette of the relevant Autonomous Community. He/she also communicates it to the Council of Universities.

The hiring of teaching and research staff by public universities is carried out through the recruitment modalities specific for the university field or through the modalities provided in the Workers Statute for replacing workers with the right to have their job reserved. Research, technician ot other kind staff can be also hired through a contract for a specific project or service, for developing projects for scientific or technical research.

The recruitment of the teaching and research staff, except from the figure of the Visiting lecturer, is made through a public competition. The selection is made in line with the principles of merit and capacity. A preferential merit is to be accredited for taking part in competitions for accessing the civil servant teachers bodies. The teaching and research staff contracted at full time cannot exceed 49% of the teaching and research staff of the university. Contracted professors on a temporary basis cannot exceed 40% of the total teaching staff. Those professors who do not teach in the studies leading to the obtaining of the official degrees are not taken into account for calculating these percentages, as well as the staff of the research centres attached to the university.

At private universities there is only staff employed on a contractual basis with a maximum probationary period of four months. At least, 50% of all the teaching staff must hold a Doctoral degree. In addition, by 2013 as a maximum, 60% of all PhD lecturers of these universities must also have obtained a positive evaluation by the National Agency for Quality Evaluation and Accreditation (ANECA) or the external evaluation body established by the Autonomous Community.

Professional status

Professors of public universities mainly work on a full-time basis, but there is also a regime on a part-time basis. The workload is, in all cases, compatible with scientific, technical or artistic projects. Professors’ duties, depending on whether they work on a full-time or part-time basis, are defined in the statutes of each university, according to the regulations related to university teaching staff.

Civil servant professors have a permanent contract with universities.

The professional status of the teaching staff employed on a contractual basis varies depending on the level to which they belong:

  • Assistant professor: hired on a temporary basis and full time. The length of the contract cannot not be less than one year and more than five.
  • PhD assistant professor: hired on a temporary basis and full time. The length of the contract cannot not be less than one year and more than five. In any case, the total length of this figure and the figure of assistant professor, in the same or other university, cannot exceed eight years.
  • PhD Contract professor: full-time permanent contract.
  • Associate professor: part-time teaching, temporary contract. The contract lasts three months, four months or one year, and it can be renewed for periods of the same length, as long as the exercise of the professional activity out of the university field is proved.
  • Visiting lecturers: full-time or part-time temporary contract with the length agreed by both parties.
  • Emeritus professors: temporary contract, their status varies depending on the statutes of each university.

Entry into private universities is regulated by the 6th National Collective Agreement for Private Universities, Private University Centres and Postgraduate Training Centres. It is done through a free full-time or part-time contract between the worker and the owner of the institution. In this type of institutions the teaching staff may have a contract for an indefinite period, a temporary contract, a contract for a specific work or service or a stage contract. As for the professors contracted for a specific work or service, the recruitment is done full time during the time demanded for implementing the relevant work or service. In order to train prospective teachers, this type of institutions, under a stage contract, may recruit holders of a university degree, an Intermediate or Advanced Vocational Training certificate, or an equivalent qualification if they are qualified to exercise the profession within four years (six in the case of a disabled worker) following the completion of their studies. The maximum age limit to sign a contract of this kind is 24 years of age. The duration of the contract varies between a minimum of 1 year and a maximum of 3.

The teaching staff of private universities and university private institutions attached to universities cannot be active civil servants of a university teaching body and work in a public university. The same restriction applies to full-time teaching and research staff.

The 2007 Act on the Basic Statute of Public Workers establishes the duties of all the staff working for the government in any field, specifying the code of conduct, the ethical and conduct principles. On the other hand, there is a code of ethics for the teaching profession approved by the General Council of the Official Colleges of PhDs and Bachelors in Philosophy and Letters and in Sciences in November 2010. It gathers the fundamental rights of the education professional when exercising their activity with students, families and guardians. the educational institution, the profession itself and the society.

Salaries

Professors' salaries vary depending on the ownership of the university where they teach and on their professional status.

In public universities, the salaries and the promotion requirements of the teaching and research staff depend on if they are career civil servants od contract staff. For civil servants, they are established at State level by the general regulations for workers, within each Teaching body and for each series of professional levels.

The State and the Autonomous Communities may establish additional rewards linked to individual merits related to the teaching practice and time devoted to it, teacher training, research, technological development, transfer of knowledge and management. Thus, university civil servant professors may receive two types of additional rewards for promoting the teaching and research activity:

  • The specific additional remuneration for teaching merits, received after the positive evaluation every five years.
  • The productivity additional remuneration, which is received after a positive evaluation of the research activity carried out every five or six years.

Minimum salaries of university career civil servant professors with a full-time basis

CONCEPT
GROUP A
Subgroup A1

 University senior professor

(Level 29

Senior lecturer of University and Senior professor of University School (figure to be extinguished)

(Level 27)

Senior lecturer of University School (figure to be extinguished)

(Level 26)

MONTHLY REGULAR SALARY
Basic salary
1 109,05 €
Bonus every three years (Seniority) 42.65 €
Additional remuneration attached to a post
868.93 795.85 698.20
Specific additional remuneration   General remuneration
979.71 457.06 282.19
Teaching merits 148,58 120,34 101,84
Productivity for research activity 
ADDITIONAL SALARIES  (*)
Basic salary
684,36 €
Bonus every three years (Seniority)
26,31 €
Additional remuneration attached to a post 891,79  816,79  716,57 
Specific additional remuneration General remuneration
1 005,49 
469,08  289,61 
Teaching merits
152,48 123,50 104,52
Productivity for research activity

(*) The data in the table, concerning the additional remuneration attached to a post and the different remunerations of the Specific additional remuneration, correspond to the aritmetic mean calculated from the amount to be received in each of the two additional salaries, in June and December.

Source: Prepared by Eurydice Spain-REDIE (CNIIE, MECD) from the State regulations in force.

In their turn, the remunerations of contract teaching and research staff in public universities is regulated by the State and Autonomous Communities and, therefore, it may vary from one Autonomous Community to another. Likewise, and within the limits established by the Autonomous Communities, each university may agree to grant salary bonuses linked to individual merits based on the teaching practice and the time devoted to it, teaching training, research, technological development, transfer of knowledge and management. Besides, the Government may establish incentive programmes to foster contract staff’s productivity.

At private universities, the salaries of the teaching staff are agreed in the respective employment contracts, with the limits and amounts established by the regulations in force. In addition, in line with the to the lucrative nature of the institution, the salary is set by the 12th State Collective Agreement for Non-profit University Education and Research Institutions, and it consists of salary, remuneration that can be consolidated (additional salaries and seniority (bonus every three years) and other remunerations. Likewise, the salary can also be regulated by the  6th National Collective Agreement for For-profit making Private Universities and Postgraduate Training Institutions, which has as remuneration the basic salary, voluntary bonuses, non-absorbable allowances, the teaching remuneration and, if appropriate, the remuneration for service. The final salary of the teaching staff depends on several factors, like the kind of working day, the professional level of the professor and the type of institution.

Working time and holidays

Working day

In public universities, full-time professors have their working day set in 35 hours per week with a general nature for civil servants of the State Public Authority, among which:

  • Teaching duties: It usually lasts 8 teaching hours, both for civil servants and contract professors (except from Senior lecturers of unviersity school, which is 12 teaching hours per week). Civil servant staff must devote to the teaching activity the necessary time of the day for teaching 24 ECTS every academic year. Likewise, their teaching activity can vary depending on their research activity, according to the following rules:

- The following ones must devote to the teaching activity the necessary part of the day for teaching 16 ECTS every academic year: Senior lecturers of University Senior lecturers of University School, or Senior professors of University School with three or more consecutive positive evaluations of the research activity, having passed the last one in the last six years: or Senior professors of University with four or more consecutive positive evaluations of the research activity, having passed the last one in the last six years. In any case, if five evaluations of the research activity have been passed.

- The following ones must devote to the teaching activity the necessary part of the day for teaching 32 ECTS every academic year: Those who have not been evaluated during the first six years of research activity or who have not obtained a negative evaluation of the said period; or when they have not been evaluated in six years from the last positive evaluation of the research activity. 

  • Tutoring: 6 hours a week.
  • The rest of the timetable: Research, mangement and administration activities pf their Department, Centre or University.

Part-time professors teach 3 hours as a minimum and 6 hours as a maximum a week, and the same number of hours for tutoring a week.

In private universities, the total number of working hours per week depends on the time.

  • Non-profit making educational institutions:

- Exclusive full-time professors: 37.5 hours per week of availability at the educational institution. 15 hours as a maximum devoted to formal education and conferences. The rest is devoted to the class preparation, tutoring, research, management and other university activities.

- Full-time professors: 30 hours per week of availability at the educational institution. 13 hours devoted to teaching.

- Part-time teaching staff: The working time is agreed between the employee and the institution.

  • For-profit educational institutions:

- Exclusive full-time professors: 1 685 hours per year. A maximum of 15 hours per week devoted to teaching. Around 30 hours per week devoted to the rest of activities: management duties, research projects, class preparation and tutoring.

- Ordinary teaching staff: 842 hours per year: 842 hours per year. A maximum of 15 hours per week devoted to teaching. Around 14 hours per week devoted to the rest of the above mentioned activities.

Holidays

Teachers in public universities have 22 working days every full year of active service (Saturdays are not considered as working days), or the corresponding days in proportion if the time worked was less than a year, apart from the bank holidays established at State, regional and local level.

Teachers in private universities have 1 month for holidays a year, preferably in Summer. They have also holidays in Easter (around 1 week) and Christmas (around 2 weeks) set for the students, being compulsory for them  to join 1 day before students, and the days established at State, regional and local level.

Promotion, advancement

Civil servant professors of public universities may move up from one Body to another immediately higher by participating in the competitive examinations announced by universities. Candidates must meet the requirements related to qualifications, merits and seniority, and pass the qualifying examinations established by each university. In addition, university professors may also undertake posts in leadership and management bodies within the university. For detailed information on these posts in leadership and management bodies, see the article on Management Staff for Higher Education.

As regards contract professors of public universities, vacancies in higher categories are to be covered, preferably, by staff from lower levels in the same group, on the basis of their ability, qualifications, eligibility and seniority in the institution. They may also participate in competitive examinations to gain access to civil servant status providing that they meet all requirements.

In the case of for-profit making private institutions, the 6th National Collective Agreement for Private Universities, Private University Institutions and Postgraduate Training Institutions specifies that teachers’ advancement to the immediately higher level is done by the company, taking into account the candidate's aptitudes and certain criteria (seniority, publications, qualifications, established quotas, specific tests, research projects, training, etc.).

In the case of non-profit making private institutions, teachers’ advacement conditions are established in the 12th State Collective Agreement for University Education and Research Institutions. This agreement specifies that the promotion of these professors is subjet to the statutes and internal regulations and rules of each institution.

Retirement and pensions

In general, retirement is not effective until the end of the academic year in which the teacher reaches the ages listed below. On the other hand, both the Education Authorities and the universities must promote the gradual reduction of teaching staff’s activity once they reach the age of 60, through the early retirement and voluntary retirement,.

In public universities the conditions for retirement are different for civil servant professors and contract professors:

  • Civil servant staff:

- Compulsory retirement at the age of 70.

- Early retirement: At the age of 65 on request, proving 15 years of effective service to the State.

- Retirement due to permanent disability.

Emeritus professors may continue collaborating in academic activities, after the compulsory retirement age, according to their agreement with the university where they work.

  • Contract staff: Compulsory retirement at the age of 65.

The economic amount of the pension varies according to the years they have been paying national insurance, the modality of the payment and the additional rewards of the body to which they belong.

In private universities retirement conditions are established.

- Compulsory retirement at the age of 65.

- Partial or early retirement by agreement between employer and employee.

- Retired teaching staff whose expertise is widely acknowledged may continue collaborating in academic activities.

The economic amount of the pension varies according to the years they have been paying national insurance, the modality of the payment and the additional rewards of the body to which they belong.