Spain:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

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Overview Spain

Contents

Spain:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Spain:Historical Development

Spain:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Spain:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Spain:Political and Economic Situation

Spain:Organisation and Governance

Spain:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Spain:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Spain:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Spain:Organisation of Private Education

Spain:National Qualifications Framework

Spain:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Spain:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Spain:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Spain:Funding in Education

Spain:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Spain:Higher Education Funding

Spain:Adult Education and Training Funding

Spain:Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Primary Education

Spain:Organisation of Primary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Spain:Assessment in Primary Education

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Spain:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Vocational Lower Secondary Education: Basic Vocational Training cycles

Spain:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Higher Education

Spain:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Spain:First Cycle Programmes

Spain:Bachelor

Spain:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Spain:Second Cycle Programmes

Spain:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Spain:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Spain:Adult Education and Training

Spain:Distribution of Responsibilities

Spain:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Spain:Main Providers

Spain:Main Types of Provision

Spain:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Spain:Teachers and Education Staff

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Management and Other Education Staff

Spain:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Spain:Management Staff for Higher Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Quality Assurance

Spain:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Educational Support and Guidance

Spain:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Spain:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Spain:Mobility and Internationalisation

Spain:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Mobility in Higher Education

Spain:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Spain:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Spain:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:National Reforms in School Education

Spain:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Spain:National Reforms in Higher Education

Spain:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Spain:European Perspective

Spain:Legislation

Spain:Institutions

Spain:Bibliography

Spain:Glossary

Bilateral agreements

Spain participates in different bilateral agreements through the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, the main ones being:

FULBRIGHT SCHOLARSHIPS
Purpose Increase mutual knowledge and understanding between Spain and the United States.
Actions
  • Scholarships to pursue or complete studies (Master and PhD programmes).
  • Grants to cover travel expenses.
  • Financial support for university teachers and specialists.
  • Funding for Spanish language assistant positions.
  • Post-doctoral research scholarships.
Destination United States (US) of America.
Target groups Higher education graduates, Doctors and artists, depending on the action.
Requirements
  • Be nationals of Spain or a Member State of the European Union (EU), living in Spain.
  • Excellent knowledge of English.
  • Others, depending on the actions.
Duration Between 3 and 24 months, depending on the action being applied for.
Funding It varies depending on the action, although it normally includes registration/tuition fees, travel expenses (one return journey) as well as accident and health insurance.
Health coverage The US Government covers the costs of the accident and health insurance.
Certification Accreditation of the studies/training undertaken at the relevant educational institution.
Responsible bodies Fulbright Commission, made up of both Governments: the US Government through its Department of State, and the Spanish Government through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation and the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of the call. 

INTER-UNIVERSITY COOPERATION
Purpose
Promote internationalisation actions and actions supporting the development of cooperation in the field of research between groups attached to Spanish and Brazilian universities.
Actions
  • Type A: Joint cooperation projects for the mobility of members of Spanish research groups.
    • Action 1. Subsidies to cover the expenses of the stay of research staff in pre-doctoral training.
    • Action 2. Subsidies for the mobility of teachers and researchers.
  • Type B: Projects for the organisation of workshops and seminars, which may lay the foundations for future cooperation.
    • Action 3. Subsidies for the organisation of workshops, seminars and other bilateral activities carried out in Spain.
    • Action 4. Subsidies to cover travel, accommodation and subsistence expenses in order to participate in workshops, seminars and other activities carried out in Brazil.
Destination Brazil.
Target groups
  • Action 1. Researchers in pre-doctoral training belonging to the research group of the researcher who is responsible for the project.
  • Action 2. Doctors who collaborate in the research group of the researcher who is responsible for the project.
  • Action 3. Teachers and Doctors with civil servant status or employed on a contractual basis, from public or private universities.
  • Action 4. Teachers or researchers with civil servant status or employed on a contractual basis by the university to which the teacher responsible for the project is attached, or scholarship holders at the university in question.
Requirements
  • Action 1. Have a contract as research staff in pre-doctoral training at a Spanish university; at the time of travel to Brazil, the beneficiary must have a contract as research staff in pre-doctoral training.
  • Action 2. Have civil servant status or be employed on a permanent contractual basis in public or non-profit private universities, or be employed on a contractual basis as a post-doctoral teacher or researcher by the university in question, for at least the 2 years of the implementation of the project. Hold a PhD.
  • Actions 3 and 4. There is no specific requirement for workshops or seminars; each application is evaluated on an individual basis.
Duration

Between 2 weeks and 12 months, depending on the action being applied for.

  • Action 1. A minimum of 6 months and a maximum of 12, with no extension possible.
  • Action 2. A minimum of 2 weeks and a maximum of 2 months.
  • Actions 3 and 4. 1 year, with no extension possible.
Funding It varies depending on the action, although it normally includes additional aid, a monthly allowance to cover the cost of travel, assistance to cover the costs of departure and installation and accident insurance.
Health coverage Accident insurance, paid by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport. Healthcare is in accordance with the Bilateral Agreement between Spain and Brazil with regard to the Social Security treatment of workers who temporarily move to another country, or the regulations of MUFACE (the General Mutual Insurance Society for Civil Servants) if the beneficiary is covered by this scheme.
Certification Accreditation of the studies/training undertaken at the relevant educational institution.
Responsible bodies The Brazilian Ministry of Education and the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of the call.

VISITING TEACHERS (UNITED STATES AND CANADA)
Purpose Provide an opportunity to teach in a country with a different cultural and professional background, where beneficiaries teach Spanish as a foreign language or different curricular areas of the education system of the relevant country.
Actions Stays in educational institutions abroad.
Destination United States (US) and Canada.
Target groups Teachers.
Requirements
  • Be nationals of Spain.
  • Be fluent in oral and written English.
  • Not be suffering from any medical conditions which make it impossible for them to teach.
  • Other requirements depending on the destination.
Duration 1 school year, which can be extended.
Funding

The remuneration of selected candidates varies depending on the contracting school district and their teaching experience and educational qualifications.

The contract is formulated under the terms agreed by both parties concerning working conditions and its date and form, in accordance with the labour legislation in the US or Canada.

Health coverage

Teachers must take out medical insurance in compliance with the visa regulations.

The school districts provide them with information on health insurance, leaving it to their choice.

Government-employed teachers abroad who are affiliated to MUFACE (the General Mutual Insurance Society for Civil Servants), as well as its beneficiaries, have insurance through an agreement this Society signs with an insurance company. They may also choose the one offered by their school district.

Certification Certificate detailing the services provided by the beneficiary as visiting teacher in the US or Canada.
Responsible bodies The Department for Education of the relevant State in the case of the US, the Ministry of Education of the province of Alberta in Canada, and the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of the call.

LANGUAGE ASSISTANTS
Purpose

Promote learning and dissemination of the Spanish language and culture abroad.

Improve the knowledge of the language and culture of Spanish language assistants in the host country. 

Actions Stays in foreign institutions.
Destination Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Malta, New Zealand, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Target groups Students in the last year or graduates in the programmes established in the call.
Requirements
  • Be nationals of Spain.
  • Students in the last year or graduates in one of the programmes established in the call (Philology, Translation and Interpretation, or Teacher Training with the specialisation in a foreign language).
  • Not having been a language assistant before.
  • Not be suffering from any medical conditions which make it impossible for them to undertake their duties as language assistants.
Duration 1 school year.
Funding

Accommodation, subsistence and medical insurance costs.

It is compatible with other grants, sources of income or resources for the same purpose.

Health coverage Depending on the destination country. The European Health Insurance Card provides health coverage in accordance with the legislation of the destination country, taking into account the nature of the benefits and the length of the stay, if it is in territory of the EU, the European Economic Area (EEA) or Switzerland. If the destination is a different country, they are required to have a health insurance plan which is valid in the host country. In the case of the United States and Canada, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport will cover insurance costs.
Certification Certificate of participation in the Programme.
Responsible bodies The relevant international bodies and the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of the call.

SPANISH SECONDARY EDUCATION STUDENTS OF GERMAN
Purpose

Improve the knowledge of German.

Offer the possibility to learn about the culture of the host country.

Actions Stays abroad for students to undertake academic and cultural activities.
Destination Germany.
Target groups Spanish students.
Requirements
  • Spanish students aged 16-18 who have completed at least 2 years of German in a secondary school (public school or publicly-funded private school).
  • Not have German as their mother tongue.
  • Not have visited Germany through these programmes or others.
Duration 4 weeks.
Funding German language course as well as travel, accommodation and subsistence costs.
Health coverage The European Health Insurance Card provides health coverage in accordance with the legislation of the destination country, taking into account the nature of the benefits and the length of the stay. Otherwise, they are required to have a health insurance plan which is valid in the host country.
Certification Certificate of participation.
Responsible bodies The Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of the call.

STAYS FOR THE MOBILITY OF TEACHERS AND STUDENTS IN JOINT FRANCO-SPANISH MASTER PROGRAMMES AND PhD SCHOOLS
Purpose Encourage the mobility of Spanish university teachers and students, in order to participate in Master programmes and promote the internationalisation of doctoral training.
Actions Stays in French institutions for teachers and students.
Destination French universities and PhD schools.
Target groups Spanish university teachers and students who participate in Master and PhD projects jointly developed by French and Spanish universities.
Requirements
  • Visiting teachers: Teachers of Franco-Spanish cooperation projects that have been already selected; teachers or researchers linked to a university or research institution of renowned prestige; be employed on a contractual basis by the Spanish university developing the joint project with the French university, at the time of application and during the period envisaged for the stay.
  • Students in joint Master programmes: Be enrolled in at least 30 credits of the Master programme chosen; have an average mark in their student record which varies depending on the programme; not have been awarded any other subsidy or grant which is incompatible, or this grant in previous calls.
  • Students in PhD schools: Be enrolled in a doctoral programme in the PhD school chosen; be carrying out a joint PhD thesis; not have been awarded other grants which are incompatible with this one, or this grant in previous calls.
Duration
  • Visiting teachers: A minimum of 1 week and a maximum of 3 (joint Master programmes). A minimum of 1 week and a maximum of 2 (joint PhD programmes).
  • Students in joint Master programmes: A minimum of 8 weeks and a maximum of 16.
  • Students in PhD schools: 6 consecutive months in the same host institution.
Funding
  • Visiting teachers: A maximum of EUR 597 per week to cover accommodation and subsistence expenses, and a maximum of EUR 600 for travel expenses.
  • Students in joint Master programmes: A maximum of EUR 230 per week to cover accommodation and subsistence expenses.
  • Students in PhD schools: A maximum of EUR 5 000 for the whole period to cover accommodation and subsistence expenses.
Health coverage The European Health Insurance Card provides health coverage in accordance with the legislation of the destination country, taking into account the nature of the benefits and the length of the stay. Otherwise, they are required to have a health insurance plan which is valid in the host country.
Certification Accreditation of the training undertaken.
Responsible bodies Universities entering into a bilateral association or creating a network of associated institutions, and the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of the call.

RESEARCH GRANTS OF THE FRENCH EMBASSY
Purpose Carry out a research project or prepare a doctoral thesis.
Actions Stays to study and participate in training activities.
Destination France.
Target groups Spanish university teachers of French in or Spanish third-cycle students of French studies.
Requirements
  • Have initiated research on the fields of Linguistics or French Literature, French as a Foreign Language, Translation or Terminology (French/Spanish), and French for Specific Purposes.
  • Have a degree in Modern Languages (French), Romance Languages, or French Literature or its equivalent.
  • Not have been awarded a grant of this type in the last 3 years.
Duration 1 month.
Funding Research grant of a month’s duration.
Health coverage The European Health Insurance Card provides health coverage in accordance with the legislation of the destination country, taking into account the nature of the benefits and the length of the stay. Otherwise, they are required to have a health insurance plan which is valid in the host country.
Responsible bodies The French Embassy and the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of the call.  

SPANISH COLLEGE IN PARIS - GRANTS FOR LONG-TERM RESIDENTS
Purpose Complete at least one year of study in France.
Actions Stays to undertake studies and participate in training activities.
Destination French State, in Paris or in the Île-de-France region.
Target groups Resident student, resident researcher, resident artist.
Requirements
  •   Resident student (Résident-étudiant):

- Have completed at least the 4th year of university studies, or have obtained the Bachelor degree or its equivalent in France (Master 1 or BAC+4).

- Not hold a PhD.

- Be enrolled in a public or private higher education institution recognised by the French State in order to study, at least, the 5th year of university studies (in France, the equivalent to a Master 2, BAC+5 or higher).

  •   Resident researcher (Résident-chercheur):

- Hold a PhD, or be a university teacher or researcher.

- Develop post-doctoral work or a research project that has been accepted by a university or a higher education or research institution.

  •   Resident artist (Résident-artiste):

- Carry out artistic, musical or literary studies or research or other cultural creation activities.

- Prove that they have completed 4 years of higher education studies in their discipline.

- Be enrolled in a public or private higher education, research or creation institution of renowned prestige, recognised by the French State, or provide proof or an equivalent activity.

Duration A minimum of 4 months and a maximum of 10.
Funding Residence in the Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris and/or the Spanish College.
Health coverage The European Health Insurance Card provides health coverage in accordance with the legislation of the destination country, taking into account the nature of the benefits and the length of the stay. Otherwise, they are required to have a health insurance plan which is valid in the host country.
Responsible bodies Spanish College (at the Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris) and the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (National Centre for Educational Innovation and Research, Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) on the basis of the call.

Cooperation and participation in worldwide programmes and organisations

Europe

Spanish Service for the Internationalisation of Education

This body, dependent on the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, is responsible for managing the participation of Spain in the Erasmus+ Programme of the EU. The Service’s tasks are to develop the decentralised actions of the different programmes, disseminate the call for the programme, offer technical assistance and advice to potential beneficiaries of the actions, ensure an adequate monitoring of the actions in order to achieve the expected results, and manage European funds in an efficient and transparent way.

In addition, it is in charge of the promotion of other European initiatives in education, such as the Euroscola Prize, the European Label for innovative projects in language teaching and learning, the Europass, and the Portfolio.

Council of Europe

The aim of the Council of Europe, founded in 1949, is to find shared solutions to solve the major problems society is currently facing, by developing common and democratic principles based on the European Convention on Human Rights and other reference texts on the protection of individuals. It comprises all Member States of the EU.

Spain participates actively in the multilateral activities developed by this international body, which entails attendance to meetings and conferences. Its major areas of work include education for democratic citizenship and human rights, violence in schools and the promotion of sports.

European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education 

The European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education, founded in 1996, is an independent and self-governing organisation established by the member countries to act as their platform for collaboration in the field of special needs education with the aim of contributing to the improvement of quality in education.  This organisation is supported by the European Commission and Parliament.

Spain participates in the following initiatives, among others: legal system, funding and identification of special educational needs, special educational needs within the education system, teacher training, development of inclusion, quality indicators and database.

Latin America

Organisation of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture

This is an international governmental body for cooperation among Ibero-American countries in different areas, including education. Its goal is to promote the universal right to education and to improve quality and equity in lifelong learning.

Among the initiatives in which Spain participates, the following can be mentioned: Programmes for Literacy and Basic Education of Young People and Adults, the 2007-2015 Ibero-American Plan for Literacy and Basic Education of Young People and Adults, the Ibero-American Intergovernmental Network for Technical Cooperation for Special Needs Education, the Ibero-American Education Network for Young People and Adults and the Ibero-American Network of Information and Communication Technology and Education.

Andrés Bello Agreement

The Andrés Bello Agreement is an intergovernmental organisation aimed at promoting the educational, scientific and technological integration of its member countries. Spain has been a member since 1982.

Spain, like the rest of states, contributes to the recognition of basic and secondary education, recognises the qualifications obtained in the member states for access to postgraduate studies, and proposes specific lines for action which include exchanges for technical assistance, internships, seminars, training workshops and exchanges of experts.

Carolina Foundation

The Carolina Foundation is a public-private institution, established in 2000, which promotes cultural relations and educational and scientific cooperation between Spain and Ibero-American countries.

The following programmes relating to education are worth stressing: 

  • Training Programme (Grants), whose aim is to facilitate and promote further study for university graduates through grants.
  • International Visitors’ Programme, which intends to create and consolidate bilateral and cooperation relations between Spain and the countries to be given priority for Spanish foreign action. 
  • Living in Spain Programme, which seeks to provide Latin American beneficiaries a deeper understanding of the Spanish reality and allow them to establish links between them, as well as with Spain and the Foundation.
  • Carolina Network, designed to emphasise and strengthen the exchange, cooperation and learning relations the Carolina Foundation generates through the different programmes

International 

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 

In 1960, Spain signs an agreement with the OECD, whose task is to promote policies to improve the economic development and social welfare of people around the world.  

In the field of education, thematic lines are the following: equity in education, pre-primary education, higher and adult education, education, economy and society, labour markets and human capital, and research and knowledge management.

Among the OECD actions in which Spain is involved, the most important are:  the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) and the Education Indicators Project (INES).

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)

Since 1953, Spain takes part in the work of the UNESCO. As regards education, the following broad areas are covered: key elements in education, education systems, educational planning and management, and international action.

When it comes to participation in UNESCO projects, Spain is a member of: 

  • The UNITWIN/UNESCO Chairs Programme, which is organised around the following themes: citizenship and values education, distance education, early childhood education, education for sustainable development, entrepreneurship education, higher education, languages, lifelong learning, inclusive education, the right to education, teacher training, and technical and vocational training.
  • The UNESCO Associated Schools Project Network (ASPnet). It is global network of more than 9 000 educational institutions in 176 countries. Spain participates with a total of 210 Associated Schools located in most Autonomous Communities.