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Spain:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

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Spain:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Spain:Organisation of Private Education

Spain:National Qualifications Framework

Spain:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Spain:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Spain:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Spain:Funding in Education

Spain:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Spain:Higher Education Funding

Spain:Adult Education and Training Funding

Spain:Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Primary Education

Spain:Organisation of Primary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Spain:Assessment in Primary Education

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Spain:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Vocational Lower Secondary Education: Basic Vocational Training cycles

Spain:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Higher Education

Spain:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Spain:First Cycle Programmes

Spain:Bachelor

Spain:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Spain:Second Cycle Programmes

Spain:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Spain:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Spain:Adult Education and Training

Spain:Distribution of Responsibilities

Spain:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Spain:Main Providers

Spain:Main Types of Provision

Spain:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Spain:Teachers and Education Staff

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Management and Other Education Staff

Spain:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Spain:Management Staff for Higher Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Quality Assurance

Spain:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Educational Support and Guidance

Spain:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Spain:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Spain:Mobility and Internationalisation

Spain:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Mobility in Higher Education

Spain:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Spain:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Spain:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:National Reforms in School Education

Spain:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Spain:National Reforms in Higher Education

Spain:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Spain:European Perspective

Spain:Legislation

Spain:Institutions

Spain:Bibliography

Spain:Glossary

Evaluation of pupils

The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport is responsible for setting the basic curriculum for Bachillerato, including the evaluation criteria for the different subjects for the whole State.

The education authorities complete and develop these criteria and define pupils’ evaluation process for their respective regions.

In educational institutions, everything related to the planning and organisation of students’ evaluation is the responsibility of the Teachers’ Assembly, although each Educational Department includes in its plan the evaluation criteria of the subjects they teach, as well as the evaluation procedures and the marking criteria.

Each teacher can adopt the evaluation techniques and instruments that he/she deems most appropriate.

Characteristics of the evaluation process in Bachillerato:

  • it is different for each subject
  • assessment is carried out by all the teachers of the group and coordinated by the form teacher under the supervision of the Counselling Department
  • the teacher of each subject decides, at the end of the academic year, whether the student has achieved the relevant objectives taking the evaluation criteria as the main reference point
  • the teaching team assesses the students’ progress in all the subjects, their academic maturity compared to the objectives of Bachillerato and, at the end of the stage, their ability to successfully undertake higher education
  • although it is a non-compulsory stage, the process of continuous evaluation requires attendance in class and participation in the activities of the different subjects on a regular basis. Unjustified absence might cause students to lose their right to the continuous assessment
  • students may resit the subjects they have failed
  • the education authorities determine the dates and the conditions so that schools may organise the corresponding supplementary examinations.

The results of the evaluation are expressed in numbers (whole numbers only) from 1 to 10. Anything less than 5 is a Fail.

They must also be accompanied by the following terms:

  • Fail (IN), for grades 1-4
  • Pass (SU), if the grade obtained is a 5
  • Good (BI), if it is a 6
  • Very Good (NT), for grades 7 and 8
  • Excellent (SB), for grades 9 and 10. 

Reporting of the results of the evaluation:

  • they are issued to their families in written form at least once every trimester
  • they do not have an official academic validity
  • they are key when it comes to deciding whether the student’s progression is adequate or not
  • the form teacher of each group or class is the person responsible of regularly informing families about any detected difficulties their offspring may have encountered
  • following consultation with the rest of the education authorities, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport determines the basic evaluation and formal requisites derived from the assessment process, guaranteeing in this way student mobility
  • the results obtained in the different subjects are expressed numerically. At the end of the academic year an extra statement appears in which it either expresses promotion to the next year or expresses that the pupil has qualified for his or her certificate
  • in an extraordinary attempt, if a pupil is absent from a subject this is considered to all effects, as a Fail.

Apart from student learning assessments, educational institutions also evaluate teaching processes and practice, in order to analyse, assess and reorientate, if appropriate, the actions developed during the stage. For more information, see Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education.

External evaluation at the end of Bachillerato

It will be implemented in the 2017/18 academic year for the first time.

The aim is to assess the achievement of the objectives of the stage as well as the degree of acquisition of the relevant skills in relation to the following subjects:

  • all the general subjects studied in the set of core subjects. In the case of subjects implying continuity between the two years, only the subject studied in the 2nd year is taken into account:
    • Spanish History, Spanish Language and Literature, First Foreign Language
    • Mathematics in the Sciences branch; Latin in the Humanities pathway; Mathematics Applied to Social Sciences in the Social Sciences pathway, and Foundations of Art in the Arts branch.
  • two of the options taken within the set of core subjects, studied any year. Again, in the case of subjects implying continuity between the two years, only the subject studied in the 2nd year is taken into account:
    • Biology, Technical Drawing, Physics
    • Geology and Chemistry in the Sciences branch; Business Economics, Geography, Greek, History of Art and History of Philosophy in the Humanities and Social Sciences branch; and Performing Arts, Audiovisual Culture and Design in the Arts branch.
  • one subject from the set of specific subjects, studied any year, which is not Physical Education or Religion:
    • Musical Analysis; Earth and Environmental Sciences; Artistic Drawing; Technical Drawing, Foundations of Administration and Management; History of Philosophy; History of Music and Dance; Image and Sound; Psychology; Second Foreign Language; Graphic and Plastic Expression Techniques; Industrial Technology; Information and Communication Technologies.

Characteristics of the final evaluation:

  • it is an individualised evaluation
  • only students who have passed all the subjects can take it
  • a 5 or over out of 10 is required in order to pass it
  • in case students do not pass it or want to improve their marks, they can resit it in successive examination sessions. The highest mark is the one taken into account
  • in the case of students who wish to obtain the Bachillerato certificate in more than one branch, they can be examined in the general subjects and in the options corresponding to the different branches chosen
  • there are at least two annual examination sessions, an ordinary and a supplementary one
  • the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, after consultation with the Autonomous Communities, is responsible for establishing the characteristics of the tests and designing their content.

(2013 Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education, modifying the 2006 Education Act).

For more information, see Design of external evaluations at the end of the stage, to be implemented from the 2015/16 academic year and Design of external evaluations at the end of compulsory secondary education and Bachillerato.

Progression of pupils

The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport is responsible for setting students’ progression criteria in the basic curriculum for Bachillerato.

The education authorities define them for their respective regions and, at the end of the 1st year, the teaching team applies them collegially bearing in mind the results of the final evaluation.

Students progress to the 2nd year of the stage if:

  • they have successfully completed all the subjects taken
  • they have a negative assessment in a maximum of two subjects. In this case, they have to retake the subjects they have failed and participate in the activities for academic recovery and assessment organised by the school.

Students do not progress and repeat the year if they have more than four subjects with a negative assessment.

In 2009, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport and the education authorities of Andalusia, Aragon, Asturias, the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, Cantabria, Castile-Leon, Castile-La Mancha, Catalonia, Extremadura, Galicia and the Basque Country signed an Agreement on the conditions for the repetition of the 1st year of Bachillerato for students who fail three or four subjects of the 1st year. They have the following options, always keeping their families informed in this regard:  

  • retake the 1st year of Bachillerato in its entirety, giving up the grades obtained
  • retake the 1st year of Bachillerato in its entirety, so that they might consolidate knowledge of the subjects they have already passed and improve their grades. If the new grade is lower, they can keep the one obtained the year before
  • retake the subjects they have failed. Depending on the availability of the school, students may voluntarily take other subjects the management team might consider more suitable for their training.

In the Autonomous Communities of Valencia, Madrid, Murcia, Navarre and Rioja, students may retake the whole year, or retake the subjects of the 1st year they have failed and additionally take two or three subjects of the 2nd year.

In any case, these subjects of the 2nd year may not require knowledge included in the failed subjects. Students must be ready for progression to the 2nd year in order to be able to enrol on those subjects of the 2nd year and be graded.

Minors require authorisation from their parents or guardians.

Students who fail some subjects at the end of the 2nd year may retake them without having to retake the subjects they have passed.

In the case of subjects implying continuity between the two years, students have to pass those studied in the 1st year first. The evaluation and grading of the failed subjects of the 1st year are carried out before those of the 2nd year, in both the ordinary and supplementary examinations.

Students are allowed to repeat any of the two years of Bachillerato only once. In exceptional circumstances, they may repeat one of the two years a second time, following a favourable report by the teaching team. They may stay a maximum of four years in mainstream Bachillerato.

Certification

Students who pass all the subjects of Bachillerato are awarded the Bachillerato certificate.

Those who complete Music and Dance studies and those holding the Technician certificate may also obtain the certificate, provided they pass the common subjects of the stage.

From the 2017/18 academic year, in order to obtain the Bachillerato certificate students will have to pass the final examination at the end of the stage, as well as obtain a 5 or over out of 10.

The final mark for Bachillerato will be the following:

  • the average of the grades obtained in each one of the subjects studied during Bachillerato represents 60% of the final mark
  • the grade obtained in the final evaluation represents 40% of the final mark.

The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport regulates reciprocal recognition between Bachillerato and intermediate vocational training cycles, so that the studies completed can be taken into account even if the relevant certificate has not been awarded.

The Bachillerato certificate qualifies for access to higher education studies, although students may have to pass specific entrance examinations and meet other requirements in certain types of provision:

  • university education
  • advanced artistic education
  • advanced music and dance education
  • dramatic arts education
  • preservation and restoration of cultural assets education
  • advanced plastic arts and design studies, including glass and ceramics studies
  • advanced vocational training
  • advanced plastic arts and design professional studies
  • advanced sports education
  • military education: military and non-commissioned officers.

For more information, see First cycle programmes and Reforms in higher education.

The certificates are issued, on behalf of the King, by the Minister of Education or the relevant education authority in the Autonomous Community in question. They must include the following information:

  • specific branch or branches studied that have been passed in the final evaluation
  • final mark for Bachillerato.

The following details are included on the back: 

  • mention of the fact that it is issued on successful completion of the corresponding studies leading to the award of the certificate
  • name and surnames, place and date of birth and nationality of the student
  • name and location of the educational institution where the studies were completed, month and year of completion and, where legally appropriate, final mark obtained
  • place and date of issue of the certificate
  • evidence of the official status of the certificate
  • three signatures: in the case of the Autonomous Communities, the signatures of the competent body, the relevant authority of the executive body responsible for controlling the issuing of certificates in the Autonomous Community and the interested party. As for the certificates issued by the Ministry of Education, the signatures of the Minister, the Director-General responsible for issuing and the interested party
  • the national and regional regulations guaranteeing the official nature of the studies.

Students who pass all the subjects of Bachillerato but who do not pass the final examination at the end of the stage are awarded a certificate with work and academic purposes.