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Spain:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

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Overview Spain

Contents

Spain:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Spain:Historical Development

Spain:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Spain:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Spain:Political and Economic Situation

Spain:Organisation and Governance

Spain:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Spain:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Spain:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Spain:Organisation of Private Education

Spain:National Qualifications Framework

Spain:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Spain:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Spain:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Spain:Funding in Education

Spain:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Spain:Higher Education Funding

Spain:Adult Education and Training Funding

Spain:Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:Primary Education

Spain:Organisation of Primary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Spain:Assessment in Primary Education

Spain:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Spain:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Spain:Vocational Lower Secondary Education: Basic Vocational Training cycles

Spain:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Spain:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Spain:Higher Education

Spain:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Spain:First Cycle Programmes

Spain:Bachelor

Spain:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Spain:Second Cycle Programmes

Spain:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Spain:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Spain:Adult Education and Training

Spain:Distribution of Responsibilities

Spain:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Spain:Main Providers

Spain:Main Types of Provision

Spain:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Spain:Teachers and Education Staff

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Spain:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Management and Other Education Staff

Spain:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Spain:Management Staff for Higher Education

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Spain:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Quality Assurance

Spain:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Spain:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Educational Support and Guidance

Spain:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Spain:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Spain:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Spain:Mobility and Internationalisation

Spain:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Mobility in Higher Education

Spain:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Spain:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Spain:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Spain:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Spain:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Spain:National Reforms in School Education

Spain:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Spain:National Reforms in Higher Education

Spain:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Spain:European Perspective

Spain:Legislation

Spain:Institutions

Spain:Bibliography

Spain:Glossary

The 1978 Spanish Constitution established a decentralised and symmetrical model of State:

  • by which educational powers are shared between all levels of government
  • where the educational powers exercised by the Autonomous Communities are basically the same.

The competences in terms of education are shared between the State General Authority (Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) and the Autonomous Communities (Regional Ministries or Departments of Education). In the Cities of Ceuta and Melilla these competences are assumed by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport itself.

The role of local authorities is focused on educational management through the Education Departments or Municipal Education Institutes. The education authorities delegate the exercise of their functions to the municipalities in aspects having a direct impact on them.

Educational institutions also collaborate thanks to their autonomy, adapting their resources and pedagogic action to the specific needs of their students and the characteristics of the school environment.

With this decentralisation model, the curriculum is formulated in a set of levels of application:

Levels of curricular development

Central administration

Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport

Basic curriculum for the whole State

Primary education, compulsory secondary education and Bachillerato:

  • common contents of core subjects
  • learning standards of core and specific subjects
  • minimum number of hours for core subjects, which shall not be less than 50% of the total number of teaching hours generally established by each education authority. Possible extensions of school hours which might be established are not taken into account
  • design of final evaluations at the end of the stage: evaluation criteria, extent to which skills have been acquired, general characteristics of the examinations and contents of each examination session (only compulsory secondary education and Bachillerato).

Pre-primary education (2nd cycle), artistic education, language education, sports education:

  • objectives, skills, contents and common evaluation criteria.

Vocational training:

  • objectives, skills, contents, learning outcomes and common evaluation criteria.

Mixed curricula for different types of provision of the Spanish and other education systems.

Autonomous Communities

Departments for Education

Official curriculum

The Autonomous Communities may make recommendations regarding teaching methodology.

Primary education, compulsory secondary education and Bachillerato:

  • complement the contents and evaluation criteria of core and specific subjects
  • establish the contents of specific subjects and the subjects that are freely structured by the Autonomous Communities
  • establish the evaluation criteria of the subjects that are freely structured by the Autonomous Communities
  • establish the maximum number of teaching hours for core subjects
  • establish the number of teaching hours for specific subjects and the subjects that are freely structured by the Autonomous Communities.

Pre-primary education (2nd cycle), artistic education, language education, sports education:

  • complement the objectives, skills, contents and evaluation criteria.

Vocational training:

  • complement the objectives, skills, contents, learning outcomes and evaluation criteria.

Schools

School development plan

Depending on the educational provision of the Autonomous Community, schools may:

  • design and implement their own teaching methods
  • complement the contents and establish the number of teaching hours for the different subjects.

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-REDIE from the regulations in force.

Administration and governance at local level

The Autonomous Communities can agree on the delegation of management competences for certain education services in the municipalities or groups of municipalities, in order to favor a greater effectiveness, coordination and social control in the use of the resources. (2006 Education Act, modified by the 2013 Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education).

There is not a common structure for all the Local Authorities responsible for carrying out their education functions. In most of them there is a Regional Ministry of Education, and some of them have created Municipal Institutes of Education.

Municipalities assume the competences related to:

  • creation, building, maintenance and monitoring of those buildings for public institutions of pre-primary, primary and special education
  • collaboration with the corresponding education authorities in obtaining the necessary site to build the new educational institutions
  • ensuring compliance with compulsory schooling and provision of the education service. 

Local corporations are empowered to set up municipal school boards. Their participation in education also entails representation on the School Boards of the Autonomous Communities and the school boards of non-university educational institutions.

Municipal authorities may use the educational institutions dependent on the Autonomous Communities for educational, cultural, sport or social activities outside school hours. Such use is subject to the needs derived from the planning of the activities of these schools.

In 2004, the MECD signed the first framework agreement for collaboration with the Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces, promoting and facilitating the exchange of information and cooperation between both institutions. Their objectives were to contribute to improve the quality of education and to achieve the full integration of educational action into local life.

In 2010, the second agreement was signed, recognising this rapprochement as an excellent means for collecting and attending the community demands expressed from the educational institution. It also emphasised the numerous educational programmes that go beyond these legal requirements and show local commitment with education.

The new collaboration areas of the agreement have to do with:

  • promotion of mutual knowledge processes regarding the educational public policies developed to strengthen and improve the educational management of local authorities
  • development of research and studies on educational policies, with the aim of drawing up indicators and recommendations for the development and dissemination o educational initiatives at local level
  • encouragement of training and the exchange of experiences among those local politics responsible for initiatives of common interest for the MECD and local corporations, contributing to the decision-making
  • training provision for those responsible for local educational management
  • knowledge and dissemination of issues related to local educational management.

This framework agreement is materialised in annual operational plans, whose aim is to carry out training activities of interest to municipalities. These annual operational plans, whose allocation is quite small, normally focus on issues such as early school leaving and bullying.4

An addendum to the second framework partnership agreement amounting to EUR 44 000 was signed in 2016.

Administration at educational institutions level

Non-university institutions

The process of decentralisation of educational powers has extended to non-university educational institutions.

The principle of school autonomy recognises the freedom to create educational institutions and provide them with their own school development plan as well as academic freedom (1985 Act on the Right to Education). The aim of  the autonomy they currently have is to ensure a better adaptation and use of the resources assigned and to adapt the pedagogic action to the specific needs of students and the features of the school environment.

Educational institutions have autonomy for preparing, passing and executing a school development plan and a management plan, as well as  the rules for organising and running the school, within the framework established by the State and Regional regulations. The education authorities thus promote so that their economic, material and human resources can take into account the working and organisation plans, once they have been duly evaluated and assessed (2006 Education Act and 2013 Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education, modifying it).

This autonomous management allows the inclusion of experimentations, working plans, organisation forms, rules of coexistence and the extension of the school timetable or the school hours for the different areas or subjects, without imposing contributions to families or demands to the Education Authorities. Only if this greater autonomy has an impact on the obtaining of academic or professional certificates, they must be specifically authorised by the MECD.

It is possible to distinguish four areas where educational institutions enjoy a wide degree of autonomy: pedagogical and curricular organisation, organisational management, management of resources and organisation of actions aimed at promoting quality.

Pedagogical and curricular organisation

Educational institutions have competences in the design of the basic curriculum for primary education, compulsory secondary education and Bachillerato:

  • complement the contents of all the subjects on the basis of educational provision
  • design and implement their own teaching and learning methods
  • establish the number of teaching hours for the different subjects.

The school development plan of the educational institution includes the values, objectives and action priorities established by the School Board. It must also observe the principles of non-discrimination and educational inclusion as fundamental values. Publicly-funded private schools have to make it public. The school development plan includes:

  • the curricula, as defined by the education authorities and specified and approved by the Teachers Assembly
  • the approach to values-based education
  • the way in which attention to students' diversity, tutorial action and the coexistence plan are addressed, taking into account the characteristics of the social and cultural environment of the school.

The education authorities are in charge of favoring the coordination between the school development plans of primary education and compulsory secondary education institutions so as to favor gradual and positive inclusion of students in the new education level.

The promotion of the quality of education, by strengthening and increasing school autonomy, is one of the priorities of the reform implemented in the 2014/15 academic year. One of the actions the education authorities should promote, and which will lead to this increase in autonomy, is the curricular specialisation of publicly-funded secondary schools, so that the latter may offer educational provision which is adapted to their needs. Their school development plan must include the specific aspects defining the school’s uniqueness.

Organisational management

The role of the education authorities is to facilitate that, within the framework of autonomy, schools prepare their own organisation and running rules. At the beginning of every academic year they set their Yearly General Programme, which includes the said rules and projects, the curriculum and all the action plans agreed and passed. Yearly, a report is prepared at the end of the academic year, including and evaluating the educational institution activities and running.

The education authorities regulate the chance that the educational institutions define all the organisational aspects in the school rules, which is part of the school development plan. The leadership team is usually responsible for preparing it. The school rules include:

  • the basic coexistence rules
  • the means for the students participation in the School Board
  • the organisation and the procedures for a properly use of buildings, resources and facilities
  • the channels for communication between school governing and coordination bodies
  • students' rights and duties.

Management of resources

The economic management made by public educational institutions is in line with the exercise of their own autonomy, but must always comply with what is established by the Education Act, the Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education and the specific regulations of every Education Authority or of their governing bodies. On this manner, the educational institutions can:

  • acquire goods and contract works, services and supplies
  • formulate the academic and professional qualification requirements regarding certain school positions
  • prepare their management project, which includes the organisation and use of their resources, both material and human
  • manage the staff. School Heads as responsible for the managing the resources.

The management of school resources must also contribute to the promotion of the quality of education, as well as to equal opportunities regarding access to education. The funding of Education Authorities may thus be bigger in the case of public educational institutions or publicly-funded private schools whose project might require so or whose population has specific needs. This allocation is subject to accountability and justification that resources have been properly used (2013 Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education).

The education authorities set some limits so that educational institutions can obtain additional resources, subsequent to approval by the headteacher (2013 Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education). These additional resources cannot come from activities organised by parents’ associations, in compliance with their purposes, and must be used to cover the school’s expenses

Organisation of actions aimed at promoting quality (2013 Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education)

These actions aimed at promoting quality include honorary measures for the recognition of institutions, as well as actions for the development and promotion of quality. They are based on an integrated consideration of the institution, must contain all the necessary tools to implement a quality school development plan andresult in a direct increase in their autonomy in terms of pedagogical and curricular organisation, organisational management and management of resources.

The implementation of a quality school development plan is characterised by the following:

  • it involves the school’s specialisation, which might include, among others, actions aimed at curricular specialisation, excellence, teacher training, the improvement of school performance, support for students with special educational needs or making educational resources available to shared digital platforms
  • during the period these actions are being implemented, the school headteacher has autonomy to adapt human resources to the new needs
  • educational institutions must present a strategic plan with objectives, the results to be obtained, the management to be implemented with the corresponding measures to achieve the expected results, as well as the time frame and the programming of activities.

The implementation of quality actions is subject to accountability and results are measured in terms of improvements in relation to the initial situation.

University institutions

Spanish universities have autonomy in the areas of academics, government, finances or resource administration, and staff management, allowing them to select and promote their teaching staff.

They also have competences related to the setting up of distance educational institutions and structures, the implementation of students admission procedures, the setting up of foundations and other legal bodies in order to achieve their goals, the collaboration with other entities for their staff mobility and the design and proposal of the syllabuses they consider the most attractive and appropriate for their resources and interests. 

Governance at educational institutions level

Non-university institutions

The governance of public institutions is the responsibility of collegial bodies: School Board and Teachers Assembly; and individual bodies: School Head, Head Teacher and Secretary.

The education authorities may also authorise the establishment of other governing bodies they might consider necessary. In the case of certain public educational institutions: special education, adult education or Spanish educational institutions abroad, their composition and functions are to be modified so as to be appropriate to each particular case (2006 Education Act and 2013 Act on the Improvement of the Quality of Education, modifying it).

Publicly-funded private schools must have, at least, the school head and the said collegial bodies.

Private schools enjoy autonomy to structure their organisation and as such may establish the governing and participatory bodies which they deem fit, in accordance with Law.

The Leadership Team

It is the executive governing body of public educational institutions and it is made up of the School Head, the Head of Teachers, the Secretary and any other figure established by the education authorities.

They carry out their duties in a coordinated manner, according to the instructions of the School Head. For more information, see Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Collegial governing bodies

Educational institutions have, at least, the School Board and the Teachers Assembly.

School Board

It is the governing body of the educational institution where the education community participates.

It comprises the Leadership Team, the Secretary and a representative of the school management and services staff, a regional minister or representative of the City Council, and teachers, parents and students representatives.

The education authorities establish the total number of members and regulate the election processes of the representatives of the different groups.

The School Board has similar functions in the different Autonomous Communities:

  • pass and evaluate the school development plan, the management plan, the school organisation and running rules, without prejudice of the competences of the School Board, as regards teaching planning and organisation
  • be informed of the list of candidates for the post of School Head and the projects they submit. Participate in the said process and, subsequent to agreement between the members adopted by majority of two thirds, and propose the revocation of his/her appointment and, as a consequence, be notified of the appointment and dismissal of other members of the Leadership Team
  • decide upon students' admission in accordance with the corresponding regulations
  • analyse and evaluate the general running of the educational institution and prepare proposals and reports, at its own initiative or upon request of the competent Education Authority, on the institution running and the improvement of the quality of its administration
  • propose measures and initiatives favoring coexistence in the school, equality between men and women and the peaceful resolution of conflicts in all areas of personal, family and social life and, if appropriate, know the resolution of disciplinary conflicts and ensure that they accord with the regulations in force
  • sppoint a person in charge of encouraging educational measures promoting real and effective equality between men and women
  • promote the maintenance and renovation of both school facilities and equipment, and approve the acquisition of additional resources
  • determine the guidelines for the collaboration, for education and cultural purposes, with Local Authorities and other schools, entities and bodies
  • analyse and assess the evolution of the academic performance and the results of the internal and external evaluations in which the school takes part. 

In publicly-funded private schools, the competences of the School Board are similar, although it is also involved in appointing and dismissing teachers and it is empowered to apply to the Education Authority for permission to establish complementary payments from parents to run extracurricular education activities.

Teachers Assembly

It is teachers' participatory body in the school government.

It is responsible for planning, coordinating, informing and making decisions on all education aspects.

It is chaired by the School Head and it is made up of all the teachers of the school.

It has the following functions:

  • formulate proposals to the Leadership Team and the School Board for drawing up the school projects and the Yearly General Programme
  • pass and assess the definition of the curriculum and all the educational aspects of the school projects and the Yearly General Programme
  • establish criteria regarding students' guidance, tutorship, evaluation and retake
  • promote initiatives in the field of pedagogic experimentation and research and in the training of the teachers of the school
  • choose their representatives in the School Board, be informed of the list of candidates for the post of School Head and participate in the selection
  • analyse and assess the general running of the school, the evolution of the academic performance and the results of the internal and external evaluations in which the school takes part
  • inform about the rules for the organisation and running of the school
  • suggest measures and initiatives favoring coexistence and know the resolution of disciplinary conflicts and the imposition of sanctions, as well as ensure that they comply with the regulations in force. 

Teaching coordination bodies

They aim to promote teamwork among teachers and guarantee coordinated and systematic action on the part of those responsible for the teaching/learning process.

The name, composition and specific duties are different in Pre-Primary, Primary and Secondary schools and they also vary from one Autonomous Community to another. The Education Authorities may include other figures or teams.

Teaching coordination bodies in pre-primary and primary schools
  • Teams for each education cycle: they include all the teachers organising and teaching in the same cycle, under the supervision of the Head Teacher and the leadership of a coordinator, belonging to the Pedagogical Coordination Commission
  • Pedagogical Coordination Commission: it usually comprises the School Head, the Head Teacher, the coordinators for each cycle, the person responsible for counselling of the school and, in some Autonomous Communities, the support teacher.  The functions of the Pedagogical Coordination Commission include, among others: 
    • establish the general guidelines for preparing and checking the curricular projects, as well as coordinating such preparation
    • formulate the proposals related to the organisation of the education counselling, the tutorial action plan and teacher training
    • set the criteria and procedures as provided to make any necessary curricular adaptations for students  with special education needs
    • promote the evaluation of all the activities and projects carried out in the school.
  • Coordinators for each cycle: they elected as representatives of the teams for each cycle, they coordinate and represent the latter in the Pedagogical Coordination Commission
  • Class teachers: they are in charge of pupils' guidance and counselling.  
Teaching coordination bodies in secondary schools
  • Counselling Department: it organises the educational, psychopedagogical and professional guidance and the tutorial action plan for students
  • Extracurricular and Complementary Activities Department or its coordinator: it promotes, organises and facilitates this kind of activities
  • Educational Departments (subject or vocational area): they organise and implement instruction in their respective disciplines, subjects or modules
  • Pedagogical Coordination Commission, with similar functions to those described in pre-primary and primary education 
  • Team of teachers: their duties are, essentially:
    • coordinate teaching and learning activities
    • deal with any kind of conflict
    • carry out the assessment and follow-up of the students in their group.
  • Form teachers, with similar functions to those described in pre-primary and primary education.

Participation bodies

In order to fully implement the principle of active participation and democratic management of non-university educational institutions, other channels have being developed through which parents and students can take part in a collegial manner in the control and management of education. For more information, see Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure.

Students' participation
  • Class representative, elected among the students of the group. He/she has to:
    • promote coexistence among the students of the group
    • act as their representative, look after material and facilities, and perform any other functions established by the school rules.
  • Second class representative, who supports the class representative in his/her functions and replaces him/her
  • Board of class representatives in secondary schools: it is made up of the representatives of the class representatives and of the students representatives in the School Board. Its functions are the following:
    • inform students of the school problems
    • formulate proposals to amend the school rules, as well as timetables for curricular and extracurricular teaching activities.  
  • Students associations: students have the right of association from the last years of primary education. They have a series of governing bodies established by their statutes and which vary depending on the Autonomous Community.
Parents' participation through parents' associations
  • assist parents or guardians in all matters concerning their children education
  • collaborate in the education activities of the school
  • facilitate families representation and participation in the School Boards, as well as in other collegial bodies.

University institutions

Administration, financial management and education organisation bodies

The different governing bodies of the university are responsible for exercising these functions.

Their basic principle is the participation of all the sectors involved. This principle has on the one hand, an internal aspect, since they include the different sector of the university community through the collegial bodies: lecturers, students and administration and services staff; and, on the other hand, a external aspect related to their social interests, mainly through the Social Council.

Public universities

The Statutes establish the following individual governing and representation bodies:

In addition, they have the following collegialbodies:

  • Social Council: supervising the activities of Higher Education institutions and acting as a link with the social and economic environment. It is normally composed of personalities from local, provincial and regional politics, representatives of private entities with special links with university, the Governance Team of the university, student representatives and relevant actors for the interests of universities and the academic community
  • Governing Council: establishing the strategic and programmating lines of the University, as well as the guidelines and procedures for their implementation in the fields of teaching organisation, research, human and economic resources and preparation of the budgets. It is made up by the Chancellor, who chairs it, the general secretary, the managing director and 50 members at a maximum (vice-chancellors, a representation of deans and heads, as well as a representation of the university community, as established by the university statutes)
  • Lecturers Assembly: it prepares the university statutes and, with an extraordinary nature, it can hold elections to choose a Chancellor at the initiative of a third of their members and with the approval of two thirds. The approval of this initiative entails their dissolution and the Chancellor dismissal. The university statutes regulate their makeup ant the duration of their term. It is the highest representation body in the university community
  • Board of Faculty, of University School:  it is the governing body of the university, It has competences in the election and renewal of Dean or Head, the approval of the general action guidelines and the annual report, the budget proposal submitted by the Dean or Head and the accountability of its implementation. It also participates in the preparation of proposals for creating new qualifications or the elimination of formal studies, as well as in the drawing-up and change of the syllabuses, submitting these proposals to the Governing Council for them to be approved. Most of the members are professors permanently linked to university. The students of the faculty are also represented, both through associations and delegations
  • Department Councils: they are made up of the doctors members of the Department, as well as of a representation of the other teaching and research staff not holding a doctor degree, students and administration and services staff. The Departments are the research and teaching units responsible for coordinating the studies of one or several knowledge fields, according to the university teaching programme. They have also assigned administration functions resulting from the obligation to professors’ attachment, the accountancy and the hiring of works with public entities or other departments. They are made up by all the teachers or researchers whose functions correspond to a specific knowledge field. Their creation, change or withdrawal are decided by universities.
Private universities

They establish their own governing and representation bodies in their organisation and running rules. Individual governing bodies have the same names as those in public universities.

The university ombudsperson ensures the rights and freedoms of lecturers, students and administration and services staff in connection with the different bodies and university services. His/her actions, always aimed at improving quality in every field, do not depend on any other university body and they are regulated by the principles of independence and autonomy (2001 Act on Universities).

Student participation bodies

The University Student Statute establishes diverse mechanisms for increasing the students' involvement in university life and their participation and management in university services. It acknowledges and assesses cultural, sport and solidarity activities as part of university life and establishes a commitment to modify the legal framework regulating coexistence at university.

The State University Council for Students is the highest body for deliberation, consultation and representation of university students before the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport. It channels their opinions and complains, and it is a consultative body for discussing issues affecting students.