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Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

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Overview Slovakia

Contents

Slovakia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Slovakia:Historical Development

Slovakia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Slovakia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Slovakia:Political and Economic Situation

Slovakia:Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Slovakia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Slovakia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Slovakia:Organisation of Private Education

Slovakia:National Qualifications Framework

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Slovakia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Funding in Education

Slovakia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Slovakia:Higher Education Funding

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Slovakia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Slovakia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Higher Education

Slovakia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Slovakia:First Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Bachelor

Slovakia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Slovakia:Second Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Slovakia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Slovakia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Slovakia:Main Providers

Slovakia:Main Types of Provision

Slovakia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Slovakia:Teachers and Education Staff

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Management and Other Education Staff

Slovakia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Slovakia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Quality Assurance

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Educational Support and Guidance

Slovakia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Slovakia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Slovakia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Slovakia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Higher Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Slovakia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Slovakia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:National Reforms in School Education

Slovakia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Slovakia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Slovakia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Slovakia:European Perspective

Slovakia:Legislation

Slovakia:Institutions

Slovakia:Glossary

Curriculum, Subjects, Number of Hours

According to the Act No. 245/2008 of Law Code the teaching in general secondary schools take place in agreement with the State educational programmes. They represent a starting point and a binding document for development of individual school educational programme of the school where the specific local and regional conditions and needs are envisaged.

The programmes contain:

  • name of the educational programme which is simultaneously the name of the field of education; in vocational secondary schools, being also the name of group of the fields of education,
  • concrete aims of education and training,
  • level of education which is achieved by completing educational programme or its integral part,
  • graduate’s profile,
  • educational areas,
  • characteristics of the field of education, its length, form of education and training, conditions of admission,
  • educational standards,
  • forms of practical training,
  • framework curricula,
  • language of teaching,
  • organisation conditions for education and training in individual forms of education and training,
  • procedure and conditions of completing education and training and issue of certificate on education received,
  • compulsory personnel  provision.

The school educational programme is the basic document of the school according to which the education and training is carried out at schools according to this Act. It is issued by the headteacher after discussing it at pedagogical council and school board. The founder may ask from the headteacher the school educational programme for approval. The programme must be elaborated in agreement with the principles and aims of education and training according to the education Act and the respective State educational programme.

In gymnasia, the degree of teaching the humanities, foreign languages and physical education has increased and the curricula was extended by the subjects of aesthetic education and ethic education in alternation with religious education. For example, compulsory teaching of two foreign languages has been an integral part of the educational objectives within the framework of the Education Act since 2008. In 2011, an amendment to the Education Act amended one of the objectives – to be able to master and use English and at least one other foreign language. State educational programmes in the educational area of Language and Communication were amended with this target. Education Act also defines the required level of proficiency in the foreign language in which pupils take the school-leaving examination. The level of communication competence is measured according to CEFR for languages and the subsequent executive decree to this provision determined the required level of proficiency to be B1 or B2 level.

Within the framework of extended classes the students may choose from among the following subjects, for example: seminars in Slovak language, literature, chemistry, physics, biology, mathematics, information science, programming, etc. The graduate competence profile in the state educational programmes specifies requirements for the competence in the use of information technology. There is also a list of optional subjects to choose from, for example: sociology, economics, pedagogy, psychology and others.

The development of educational programmes of general education subjects is within the competence of the National Institute of Education and vocational subjects within the competence of the State Institute of Vocational Education. In cooperation with subject commissions, teachers and methodologists they are submitted for approval and issued by the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sports of the SR. After their approval the programmes become binding for the schools. Teaching plan specifies compulsory subjects and  core curriculum options, number of weekly hours and total number of classes per grade. The additional optional subjects may be introduced according the pupils’ interests and school conditions of each school.

On the basis of requirements of practice a school can also propose other optional subjects and special concentrations for approval to the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic. The headteacher is responsible for quality of teaching of the subjects and concentrations introduced.


Gymnasium

The subject core in gymnasium is made up of subjects of general education. The education at four-year gymnasium and on higher level of perennial gymnasia is focused on the achievement of general educational basis and key competences of pupil. It prepares pupils first of all for further education but at the same time also for the use in practice, for personal and social life. The sense of gymnasium is to equip pupils with systematic structure of cognition, ability to work with information and to incorporate them into meaningful context of life situation  so that to develop them professionally and personally during the whole life. The presumption is to assert progressive educational procedures, new organisational forms, strategies and methods which fully support cognitive curiosity, creative thinking and self-reliance of pupils. The educational content in gymnasia is enriched by schools according to their own educational intentions, designs, regional needs and conditions as well as needs and interests of pupils.

Total number of weekly lessons in teaching plan of the school educational programme in individual grades of gymnasium  is as follows:

  • Grades 1 and 3: 31 lessons
  • Grade 2: 32 lessons
  • Grade 4: 30 lessons

Total number of weekly lessons in teaching plan of the school educational programme in individual grades of a bilingual  gymnasium is as follows:

  • Grade 1: 30 lessons
  • Grade 2: 32 lessons
  • Grades 3 and 4: 31 lessons
  • Grade 5: 28 lessons


State educational programme
Field of education
Subject
grade 1. - 4. (grade 5. - 8. of eight-year gymnázium)
Language and Communication Slovak language and literature
12
Foreign language I
16
Foreign language II
8
36
Man and Nature    Physics 5
Chemistry
5
Biology
6
16
Man and Society    History 6
Geography
4
Civics
3
13
Man and Values Ethics/Religion
2
2
Maths and Work with Information Maths
11
Informatics
3
14
Art and culture
Art and culture
4
4
Health and Movement
Physical Training and Sports
8
8
Total – compulsory part

93
School educational programme
Elective lessons

31
Total compulsory part + elective lessons   

124


Total number of weekly lessons in teaching plan of the school educational programme in individual grades of an eight-year gymnasium  is as follows:

  • Grade 1: 29 lessons
  • Grades 2, 3, 4 and 8: 30 lessons
  • Grades 5 and 7: 31 lessons
  • Grade 6 32 lessons


Teaching Methods and Materials

Methods in teaching process are chosen by teachers themselves. A significant space where problems of application of methods are discussed is offered through methodical bodies of secondary schools. They are curricular review groups of teachers of relative compulsory subjects (e.g. a curricular review group of science subjects associates teachers of mathematics, informatics, physics and chemistry).

According to content of subject matter, in addition to the classical method, such methods are used as heuristic and directed talk, discussion, group and individual work, project method, work with literature, frontal experiments, etc. Use of complex activating teaching methods is recommended.

Due to the fact that all secondary schools are equipped with computer technique, the latter became an integral part of applying the teaching methods. To follow-up the achieved level of reading and information literacy. To make all information sources available to students. To gradually develop the students‘ skills to search for, evaluate and use various sources of information, to adopt the methods of individual study and independent work with information, to incorporate them in their knowledge fund and subsequently, to make use of it. In the content and methods of teaching of all subjects to support those which develop the abilities and skills of pupils to independently search the knowledge from available sources. To proclaim the concept of individual freedom and approach to information as a basis for efficient and reliable citizenship and participation in democracy.

Pupils also acquire necessary skills in practical teaching, mainly through practical exercises, laboratory work, school workshop practice and operational practice.

A part of the teaching methods is also the use of laboratory and other technical equipment, mainly in vocational subjects.

Also excursion, life and health protection course, movement activities course (swimming training, snowboarding training...), school field trip are considered as a part of the education and training.


Legislation reference

Act No. 245/2008 on education and training (Education Act) and on the change and supplement to some acts as amended by subsequent provisions (Act of the National Council of the SR).