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Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

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Overview Slovakia

Contents

Slovakia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Slovakia:Historical Development

Slovakia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Slovakia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Slovakia:Political and Economic Situation

Slovakia:Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Slovakia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Slovakia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Slovakia:Organisation of Private Education

Slovakia:National Qualifications Framework

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Slovakia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Funding in Education

Slovakia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Slovakia:Higher Education Funding

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Slovakia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Slovakia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Higher Education

Slovakia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Slovakia:First Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Bachelor

Slovakia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Slovakia:Second Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Slovakia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Slovakia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Slovakia:Main Providers

Slovakia:Main Types of Provision

Slovakia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Slovakia:Teachers and Education Staff

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Management and Other Education Staff

Slovakia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Slovakia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Quality Assurance

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Educational Support and Guidance

Slovakia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Slovakia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Slovakia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Slovakia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Higher Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Slovakia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Slovakia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:National Reforms in School Education

Slovakia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Slovakia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Slovakia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Slovakia:European Perspective

Slovakia:Legislation

Slovakia:Institutions

Slovakia:Glossary

Steering Documents and Types of Activities

Education and care in kindergartens is carried out according to educational programmes. In the Slovak Republic there are the following educational programmes: 

  • the State educational  programme, 
  • the school educational programme

The school educational programme has to be prepared in agreement with State educational programe for pre-primary education, with the aims and principles of education and care laid down in the Education Act. 


The State Educational Programme

From the 1st September 2016, kindergartens registered in the network of schools and school facilities will follow the State educational programme for pre-primary education in kindergartens (svk).

State educational programme for pre-primary education in kindergartens defines basic state requirements for provision of institutional pre-primary education in kindergartens. 

This programme:

  • defines goals of pre-primary education in kindergartens,
  • represents the basic framework for the creation of school educational programmes of individual kindergartens,
  • is a framework and basis for the creation of methodical materials for kindergartens, 
  • it is in compliance with the state educational programme for the subsequent primary education,
  • emphasises meaningful evaluation work in achieving educational goals in kindergartens,
  • emphasises requirements for the provision of inclusion education  in kindergartens,
  • creates pre-requisites for autonomous planning and provision of education at each kindergarten.

The programme defines the profile of  a kindergarten graduate; the educational content explained in detail in the educational areas in the form of key competence and content standards. Individual educational areas also include evaluation questions.

The programme also deals with:

  • organisational requirements for education in kindergartens,
  • staff required  for pre-primary education in kindergartens,
  • material and premises required for provision of pre-primary education
  • requirements for safety and health in education,
  • education of children with special educational needs and meeting the conditions for inclusive education.

Principles and conditions for the creation of  school educational programmes.


Educational areas

Educational content has educational areas:

  • language and communication,
  • mathematics and work with information,
  • human and nature,
  • human and labour,
  • art and culture (consists of 2 parts: music education and visual arts),
  • health and movement.


Educational standards and evaluation questions

Content of each educational area is elaborated in educationalstandards (competence and content). Evaluation questions are a part of each educational area.

Competence standards in each educational area are expressed in observable and evaluable performance only for the last year of kindergarten attendance; they aim at the standard performace of children. 

Content standards contain basic ideas for specific teachers’  activities performed in order for the children to achieve the defined performance standards. 

Evaluation questions should improve teachers’ ability to establish the starting position in education, measure childrens’ progress more flexibly and in relation to cultural and social context of each child’s life. 


The School Educational Programme

The school educational programme follows requirements of the Education Act and the State educational programme. It is based on objectives and concentrations (profilling) of the concrete kindergarten.  It is the basic curricular document according to which the upbringing in kindergarten is carried out. It represents the second level of educational programmes. 

School educational programmes are issued by kindergarten headteachers after they have been discussed by the pedagogical board and the school board. They comprise the basis of teacher’s daily educational  activities. 

A school educational programme:

  • respects developmental particularities of children of pre-school age,
  • it takes into account kindergarten’s goals, mission and focus, 
  • accepts spatial, material and personnel conditions of the kindergarten (external and internal; near and further), 
  • creates possibilities for application of such style of educational activity that positively influences children’s learning and learning outcomes, 
  • positively influences the overall atmosphere and culture the kindergarten.

The school educational programme includes:

  • definition of aims and mission of education, 
  • level of education achieved on the completion of the school educational programme, 
  • school’s focus, length of school attendance, and form of education; 
  • curricula,
  • basic information on the language of teaching, 
  • information on the manner and conditions of completion of education and the certificate of education, 
  • information on staff, equipment and space, 
  • information on safety and health protection requirements in education, 
  • information on the internal monitoring system and evaluation of children,  
  • information on the evaluation of school staff and requirements for continuing education of teaching and professional kindergarten staff


Curricula

Curricula: 

  • determine the extent of education and upbringing – fulfilling a programme function
  • may be completed and amended under conditions set in advance - fulfilling an orientation function
  • represent a bond for all teachers in the particular kindergarten – fulfilling a normative function


Planning of  educational activities

The plan of educational activities is not a part of  kindergarten’s compulsory pedagogical documentation.

Planning of educational activities is fully within teachers’ competence. The manner, form, extent and duration of educational activities plans are  determined by each kindergarten  at the first pedagogical board meeting. There may be more forms of planning in one kindergarten at the same time.

 
Teaching Methods and Materials

Teachers can choose  methods, teaching materials, and aids freely. It depends on the content and organisation of each educational institution.


Teaching methods

Teachers’ choice of methods builds on knowledge of each child in the group; the children are treated individually. Teachers respect child’s individual learning pace and style. Play is the most predominant method in kindergartens.   

Space for free play is created in kindergartens, interactive experience learning is preferred. 

Digital Technologies, which are at every kindergarten’s disposal, are used in play and playing activities.


Methodical materials 

In kindergarten practice,  there is a great amount of methodical materials, various teaching texts, guides and work sheets are used, which are appended recommendations by the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the SR to confirm the harmony of their content and the objectives and principles of education according to the Education Act. 

Methodologies of educational areas of the state educational programme were created in order to help teachers. Methodical sheets containing practical instructions and advice were created to give examples of the best practice.

In cooperation with the Society for preprimary education and the Slovak committee OMEP, professional associations of preprimary educators, kindergartens conduct several projects and educational activities. Regularly on a yearly basis professional conferences are organized, focusing on the current pedagogical problems.  Taking part in the conferences have been also significant specialists  from neighbouring countries, particularly from the Czech Republic, Austria, Poland, Hungary and Serbia. With the aim to get inspired by examples of the best practice, the two professional organizations regularly organize international study stays in neighbouring countries.