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Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Slovakia

Contents

Slovakia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Slovakia:Historical Development

Slovakia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Slovakia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Slovakia:Political and Economic Situation

Slovakia:Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Slovakia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Slovakia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Slovakia:Organisation of Private Education

Slovakia:National Qualifications Framework

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Slovakia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Funding in Education

Slovakia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Slovakia:Higher Education Funding

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Slovakia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Slovakia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Higher Education

Slovakia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Slovakia:First Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Bachelor

Slovakia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Slovakia:Second Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Slovakia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Slovakia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Slovakia:Main Providers

Slovakia:Main Types of Provision

Slovakia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Slovakia:Teachers and Education Staff

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Management and Other Education Staff

Slovakia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Slovakia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Quality Assurance

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Educational Support and Guidance

Slovakia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Slovakia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Slovakia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Slovakia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Higher Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Slovakia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Slovakia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:National Reforms in School Education

Slovakia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Slovakia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Slovakia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Slovakia:European Perspective

Slovakia:Legislation

Slovakia:Institutions

Slovakia:Glossary

Definition of the Target Groups

National minorities

Children and pupils belonging to national minorities are guaranteed education and training in:

  • schools and classes which provide education in the language of the national minority
  • schools and classes where the language of the national minority is one of the subjects and the language of teaching in the rest of the subjects is the state language.

Education and training of children and pupils from national minorities is provided in accordance with the Education Act in kindergartens, primary schools, secondary schools, special schools and school facilities which provide teaching in a minority language or teaching of the language of minorities: Hungarian, Ukrainian, Ruthenian, Roma and German.

The Education Act defines, in a special way, the concept of foreigner`s children. Under § 146 of the Education Act immigrant children are children of:

  • persons, who are citizens of another state or persons without nationality, with residence permit in the Slovak Republic,
  • asylum seekers in the territory of the Slovak Republic according to special regulation,
  • Slovak citizens living abroad,
  • applicants for asylum or additional protection under the Act on asylum,
  • minors foreigners, who live at the territory of the Slovak Republic without guardian.


Children of Foreigners and Immigrants

Children of foreigners with residence permit in the territory of the Slovak Republic, children of asylum seekers and Slovaks living abroad are, in accordance with Act No. 245/2008 on education and training (Education Act), provided with education and training, accommodation and meals at schools under the same condition as Slovak citizens. To overcome the language barrier, basic and extended courses of state language are provided for foreigners’ children. Foreigners’ children who have been provided additional protection according to the act on asylum are placed into appropriate grade by the headteacher after having indicated the level of their previous education and their knowledge of the language, at latest three months after the beginning of the asylum proceeding; for children of people in refugee-like situation it is at latest three months from the beginning of temporary shelter procedure. In case of insufficient state language proficiency, a child can be conditionally placed into the appropriate grade on the basis of age.


Specific Support Measures

National minorities

The schools with language of instruction of national minorities make inseparable part of education system in the Slovak Republic. Education received at these kind of schools is equivalent to education at schools with the Slovak language of instruction.  Certificates issued by the schools where the education and training is provided in national minorities languages have, according to Ministry of Education. Decree No. 348/2005 of the Law Code on the types and requirements of certificates and other school forms, equivalent validity with the documents issued by the schools with Slovak language of instruction.

Education and training process at schools with teaching language and with teaching of language of national minorities is provided in line with the approved pedagogical documentation. 

The Act No. 184/1999 of the Law Code on the use of national minority languages as amended by subsequent provisions allows for members of a national minority to use their minority language in official communications if it meets the condition stated in this act. This condition is that citizens of the Slovak Republic who belong to national minorities must make up more than 20% of the population of the municipality according to the last census. The use of the Czech language in official communications fulfils the requirement of understanding with the state language, insofar as international agreements, with which the Slovak Republic must comply, to not specify otherwise.  The most frequently used minority language is Hungarian (which is used especially in southern Slovakia). Following this is the use of Ukrainian and Ruthenian languages (mostly in eastern Slovakia). Education in Hungarian languages is at the pre-primary, primary, secondary levels and higher education, in Ukrainian language is at the pre-primary, primary and secondary levels, in Bulgarian language is the use at the primary and secondary schools, in Ruthenian language is at the pre-primary and primary schools and in German language at the primary school. Further, at some primary schools is educated minority language and literature as subject (Ukrainian language and literature, Ruthenian language and literature, German language and literature and Romany language and literature).


Children of foreigners and immigrants

Measure in the area of education of foreigners are divided into four main groups, as follow:

  • leading to support foreigners children education, theirs integration into education process and familiarisation with majority society,
  • in the area of further, life-long learning for adults, re-training,
  • in the area of the achieved education recognition and professional practice and
  • measure in the area of language learning and cultural orientation of adult foreigners.

For asylum seekers children in asylum facilities, for which school attendance is compulsory according to this Act, courses of the basic Slovak language are financially and professionally secured by the Ministry of Interior Affairs of SR.  Concerning language education, the courses for foreigners children can by organised also by another legal or physical entity, after getting the accreditation according to special legal rules. For foreigners’ children with residence permit in the Slovak Republic, it is possible to establish other then public schools and to provide education and training also in another then state language for financial settlement. On the basis of the above mentioned, when providing financial resources for school and school facilities founders, which are listed in the network of schools and facilities of the ministry of education, the same rules apply for foreigners’ children in the process of provision of financial resources like with the children of the Slovak citizens.  

Further education of pedagogical employees who teach foreigners’ children is provided by the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the SR in professional, organisational, methodical and financial terms, with the exception of education of children in asylum facilities which is provided by the Ministry of Interior of the SR.

 
Pupils from socially disadvantaged environment

SR systematically supports access of pupils from socially disadvantaged environment (hereinafter only “SDB”) to education (financially and institutionally): free pre-school education from the age of 5; zero grade of primary school; specialized classes at the primary school – compensation and development programme; teacher’s assistant; allowance for pupils from SDB; food and school aids subsidies; social assistance benefit for the purpose of providing for child’s basic life needs, as long as the child fulfils the compulsory school attendance; support of schools – development projects, ESF; creation and standardisation of relevant diagnostic tools). These measures are conceptual (The concept of up-bringing and education of Roma children and pupils including secondary and tertiary education – Decree No 206/2008 of the Government of the Slovak Republic) and they also deal with the causes of school unsuccessfulness of Roma children from SDB at primary schools, i.e. not achieving school ability.

The ministry of education can provide for school founders contribution for the improvement of education and training conditions for children from socially disadvantaged background. Contribution for children from socially disadvantaged background is provided according to the number of pupils, which are provided with subsidy for food, school supplies or subsidy for motivation contribution according to special regulation. Contribution for pupils from socially disadvantaged background is provided for pupils from families, whose monthly average income for 6 consecutive months is most of the subsistence according to the special regulation. The amount of contribution is defined by the ministry of education. The aim of the scholarship for disadvantaged is to help secondary schools students, who are disabled to start studying at secondary schools on the basis of their choice, to integrate  among the other pupils,  realise and develop their knowledge and skills and find future  employment. This scholarship is awarded on the basis of application.

Decree No. 649/2008 of Law Code of the Ministry of Education of the SR on purpose of the use of the contribution for students from socially disadvantaged environment (SDE) in the wording of Decree No. 452/2011 of Law Code defines the use of the contribution in this way:

  • the remuneration of teacher’s assistants for students from socially disadvantaged environment;
  • equipment didactic technology and teaching aids in the room designated for teaching of students from socially disadvantaged environments
  • participation of students in activities pursuant to special rule;
  • for  education of students in specialized classes;
  • for preventing the spread of diseases, such as pediculosis;
  • for allowance according to special rule – allowance for teachers working with disabled students or students from SDE depending on the number of students in the class if no teacher’s assistant works in class (Act No. 553/2003 of Law Code on the remuneration of certain employees performing public interest work and on amendments and supplements to certain Acts as amended in wording of Act No. 390/2011 of Law Code).

In accordance with Decree of the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic 320/2008 of Law Code in wording of Decree No. 224/2011 of Law Code a specialized class may be established at school with the consent of the school founder for students who in terms of education and training need a compensatory programme and for students who were educated at school with an educational programme for students with health disabilities. Such class is established for at least four students but no more than eight students from one grade or several grades. If the number of students drops below four, the class is abolished. The headteacher places the students in such class based on a proposal from the class teacher, the educational counsellor after obtaining the opinion of the educational counselling and prevention centre and after obtaining the notified consent of the student’s legal guardian. The student is only included in specialized class for the necessary period of time.

Students from SDE are also educated in specialized classes if

  • after completing the zero grade they not be successfully master the curriculum of the  first grade;
  • they do not master the curriculum of the first grade or who are under psychological examination found thet no preconditions to successfully mastered the curriculum of the first grade of the first grade; or  
  • they were educated at an primary school according to a programme for pupils with health disabilities but they did not show the disability.


Legislative References

Act No. 184/1999 on the use of national minorities´ languages as amended by subsequent provisions  (Act of the National Council of the SR).
Act No. 245/2008 on education and training (Education Act) and on the change and supplement to some acts as amended by subsequent provisions (Act of the National Council of the SR).
Decree No. 348/2005 on the types and requirements of certificates and other school forms (Decree of the Ministry of Education of the SR).
Decree No. 649/2008 of Law Code. of the Ministry of Education of the SR on purpose of the use of the contribution for students from socially disadvantaged environment as amended (Decree of the Ministry of Education of the SR).
Act No. 553/2003 on remuneration of some employees at the work performance in public interest and on the change and supplement to some acts as amended by subsequent provision (Act of the National Council of the SR).
Decree No.320/2008 on primary school as amended by subsequent provision (Decree of the Ministry of Education of the SR).