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Slovakia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

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Overview Slovakia

Contents

Slovakia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Slovakia:Historical Development

Slovakia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Slovakia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Slovakia:Political and Economic Situation

Slovakia:Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Slovakia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Slovakia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Slovakia:Organisation of Private Education

Slovakia:National Qualifications Framework

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Slovakia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Funding in Education

Slovakia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Slovakia:Higher Education Funding

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Slovakia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Slovakia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Higher Education

Slovakia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Slovakia:First Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Bachelor

Slovakia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Slovakia:Second Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Slovakia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Slovakia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Slovakia:Main Providers

Slovakia:Main Types of Provision

Slovakia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Slovakia:Teachers and Education Staff

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Management and Other Education Staff

Slovakia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Slovakia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Quality Assurance

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Educational Support and Guidance

Slovakia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Slovakia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Slovakia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Slovakia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Higher Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Slovakia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Slovakia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:National Reforms in School Education

Slovakia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Slovakia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Slovakia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Slovakia:European Perspective

Slovakia:Legislation

Slovakia:Institutions

Slovakia:Glossary

The Slovak Republic lies in the centre of Europe between 16º 50´05´´ and 22º 34´04´´ of eastern geographic length and 47º 43´54´´ and 49º 36´52´´ of northern geographic width. It is spread on the area of 49 036 km2. The border’s total length is 1  652,2 km, of which  654.8 km (39.63 %) separate the country from Hungary,  541.1 km  (32.75 %) from Poland, 251.8 km (15.24 %) from the Czech Republic, 106.7 km (6.46 %) from Austria, and 97.8 km (5.92 %) from Ukraine.

As at 31st December 2013, there were 2 927 municipalities on the territory of the SR (including 3 military districts), of which 138 communities are towns. Out of the total population of 5 415 949 people, 2 928 981 inhabitants (54.08%) live in towns. Population density (converted to mid-year population) has reached the value of 110.4 people per 1 km2.


Basic data on territory and population density of the SR in 2013

Indicator   
in absolute numbers
in %
Area in km2  as at 31 December 49 036

Length of the border in km as at 31 December 1 652.2
100.00
Length of the border in km on Czech Republic
251.8
15.24
Hungary
654.8
39.63
Poland
541.1
32.75
Austria
106.7
6.46
Ukraine
97.8
5.92
Number of municipalities 2 927
100.00
Of which towns
138
4.71
military districts
3
0.10
Population as at 31 December 5 415 949
100.00
Of which females
2 776 889
51.27
population in towns
2 928 981
54.08
Average state of the population
5 413 392,5
100.00
Of which females 2 775 873
51.28
population in towns 2 931 443.5
54.15
Population density per km2 (converted to mid-year state) 110.4

Source:
Slovenská republika v číslach 2014. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2014.
Demografia a sociálna štatistika: Vekové zloženie obyvateľstva Slovenskej republiky 2013. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2014.
Demografia a sociálne štatistiky: Vývoj obyvateľstva v Slovenskej republike a krajoch v roku 2013. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2014.

Demographic Situation

The long-lasting decrease of birth rate and unsatisfactory mortality rate in the SR resulted in gradual reduction in natural growth of population up to the extent that in 2001 – 2003 there occurred population decline in natural population growth, i.e., the rate of live-born children was lower than death rate. Due to positive migration balance the population decrease was not observed.

In 2013, in the Slovak Republic there were 54 823 live births. Number of liveborns in 1000 people dropped slightly from 10.3 in 2012 to 10.1. If these children are included, the number of liveborns in 1000 people in 2012 as well as in 2013 will be more than 11.3.

In 2013, the death rate was 52 089 persons, which is by 1.20% less than in 2000 and by 2.59 % less than in 2005. In 2000, 9.8% of deaths fell on 1 000 inhabitants; in 2005 it was 9.9%; and in 2013 9.6%.

In 2000, natural growth per 1 000 inhabitants represented 0.4 people, in 2005 0.2 and in 2013 0.5 people.

Migration balance per 1 000 inhabitants went up to 0.3 people in 2000, 0.6 people in 2005 and 0.4 in 2013. In 2000, the number of people per 1 000 inhabitants grew by 0.7 in total,  in 2005 by 0.8 and in 2013 by 0.9 people. In absolute numbers the increment represents 3 890, 4 358 and 5 113 persons, respectively.

Life expectancy, that means, potential years expected at the birth has reached, in 2013, the age of 72.90 years with men which is by 5.44 % more compared to 2000 and  by 3.98 % more compared to 2005.  Life expectancy with women has reached in 2013 the age of 79.61 years, which is by 3.10 % more than in 2000 and by 2.20 % more than in 2005.


Basic demographic characteristics


Year Indices (in %)
2000 2005 2013
2013/2000
2013/2005
Population as at 31 December 5 402 547 5 389 180 5 415 949
100.25
100.50
Of which females absolute number 2 776 486 2 773,308 2 776 889
100.01
100.13
in % 51.39 51.46 51.27


Average state of the population
5 400 679 5 387 285 5 413 392,5
100.24
100.48
Live births absolute number 55 151 54.430 54 823
99,41
100.72
per 1000 inhabitants1 10.2 10.1 10.1


Death rate absolute number 52 724 53 475 52 089
98.80
97.41
per 1000 inhabitants1 9,8 9.9 9.6


Natural increase absolute number 2 427 955 2 734
112.65
286.28
per 1000 inhabitants1 0.4 0.2 0.5


Migration balance absolute number 1 463 3 403 2 379
162.61
69.91
per 1000 inhabitants1 0.3 0.6 0.4


Total increase absolute number 3 890 4 358 5 113
131.44
117.32
per 1000 inhabitants1 0.7 0.8 0.9


Life expectancy at birth (in years) males 69.14 70.11 72.90
105.44
103.398
females 77.22 77.90 79.61
103.10
102.20

Note:

0 Years 2000 and 2005: status on the 1st July
1 Converted to mid-year state

Source:
Demografia a sociálna štatistika: Vývoj obyvateľstva v Slovenskej republike 2007. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2008.
Demografia a sociálna štatistika: Vývoj obyvateľstva v Slovenskej republike 2013. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2014.

Volume of foreign migration between the Slovak Republic and foreign countries (including the Czech Republic) in 2013 achieved 7 919 people. Number of immigrants has reached 5 149 people and number of emigrants 2 770 people. Since 2000 the migration balance increase (by 162.61 %),  2005 by 30.09 %.


International migration (in persons)


Year Indices (in %)
2000 2005 2013
2013/2000
2013/2005
Migration volume 3 085 7 149  7 919
256.69
110.77
Immigrants 2 274 5 276 5 149
226.43
97.59
Emigrants 811 1 873 2 770
341.55
147.89
Migration balance 1 463 3 403 3 379
162.61
69.91

Source:
Demografia a sociálna štatistika: Vývoj obyvateľstva v Slovenskej republike 2007. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2008.
Demografia a sociálne štatistiky: Vývoj obyvateľstva v Slovenskej republike a krajoch v roku 2013. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2014.

As at 31 December 2013, of the total number of 5 415 949 inhabitants in the SR 15.32 % represented people in pre-productive age (0 – 14 years), 71.14% represented people in productive age (15 – 64 years) and 13.54 % people in post-productive age (65 years and over). Population in working age started to decrease in 2011; in 2013 it was 3 852 888 people, which is by 2.84 % more than in 2000, and by 0.24 % more than in 2005.

The changes in composition of population according to economic age groups univocally point out population ageing. While in 2000 the portion of population in pre-productive age was 19.18 % in the SR, by 2005 it decreased to 16.59 % and by 2012 to 15.32 %. On the other hand, the portion of population in post-productive age increased from 11.47 % to 11.74 % in 2000 and 2005, respectively, and to 13.54 % in 2013. In the above-mentioned years, the portion of people in productive age increased too. While in 2000 this age group made up 69.35 % of people in the total population, in 2005 it was 71.67 % and in 2013 71.14 %.

 

Age composition of population as at 31 December according to economic age groups

Age group Year Indices (in %)
2000 2005 2013
2013/2000
2013/2005
Number of persons
Pre-productive age (0-14 years) 1 036 425 894 308
829 925
80.08
92.80
Productive age (15-64 years) 3 746 538 3 862 234
3 852 888
102.84
99.76
Post-productive age (65 and over) 619 584 632 638
733 136
118.33
115.89
Total 5 402 547 5 389 180
5 415 949
100.25
100.50
Composition in %
Pre-productive age (0-14 years) 19.18 16.54 15.32


Productive age (15-64 years) 69.35 71.67 71.14


Post-productive age (65 and over) 11.47 11.74 13.54


Total 100.00 100.00 100.00


Source:Demografia a sociálna štatistika: Vekové zloženie obyvateľstva Slovenskej republiky 2000. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2001.
Demografia a sociálna štatistika: Vekové zloženie obyvateľstva Slovenskej republiky 2005. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2006.
Demografia a sociálna štatistika: Vekové zloženie obyvateľstva Slovenskej republiky 2013. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2014.


Population ageing is also documented by synthetic indicators of age: index of aging and index of economic load. While in 2000 less than 60 persons aged 65 years and over (ageing index) fell per 100 children aged 0 – 14 years, in 2005 it was about 70.74, and in 2013 the number of persons increased to 88.34. Number of children aged 0 – 14 years and that of persons aged 65 years and over per 100 people aged 15 – 64 years (index of economic load) have decreased from 44.20 in 2000, to 39.54 in 2005 and increase to 40.57 in year 2013.


Ageing index, index of economic load


Year
2000 2005 2013
Index of ageing1 59.78 70.74 88.34
Index of economic load2 44.20 39.54 40.37


Notes:
1 Number of persons aged 65 years and over per 100 children aged 0-14 years
2 Number of children aged 0-14 years and persons aged 65 and over per 100 persons aged 15-64 years


Source:
Demografia a sociálna štatistika: Vekové zloženie obyvateľstva Slovenskej republiky 2000. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2001.
Demografia a sociálna štatistika: Vekové zloženie obyvateľstva Slovenskej republiky 2005. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2006.
Demografia a sociálna štatistika: Vekové zloženie obyvateľstva Slovenskej republiky 2013. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2014.

As at 31st December 2013, from the total number of inhabitants of SR 35.69 % were less than 30 years old. In absolute numbers it represents 1 932 765 persons. As compared to 2000, in 2013 the number of inhabitants aged 0 – 29 years decreased by 19.11 %; compared to 2005 by 13.00 %.

Children of compulsory school age (6 – 15 years) in 2013 made up 9.95 % of the total population in the SR. Absolute number of these children between 2000 – 2013 decreased by 30.69 % (from 777 694 to 538 995);  since 2005 by 18.21 % (from 659 025 to 538 995).


Population aged 0 – 29 years, children of compulsory school age (CSA)


Year Indices (in %)
2000 2005 2013
2013/2000
2013/2005
Total population as at 31 December 5 402 547 5 389 180 5 415 949
100.25
100.50
Of which aged 0-29 years absolute number 2 389 501 2 221 583 1 932 765
80.89
87.00
in % 44.23 41.22 36.69


CSA (6-15 years) absolute number 777 694 659 025 538 995
69.31
81.79.38
in % 14.39 12.33 9.95


Source:
Demografia a sociálna štatistika: Vekové zloženie obyvateľstva Slovenskej republiky 2000. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2001.
Demografia a sociálna štatistika: Vekové zloženie obyvateľstva Slovenskej republiky 2005. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2006.
Demografia a sociálna štatistika: Vekové zloženie obyvateľstva Slovenskej republiky 2013. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2014.

The decrease of individual age groups of the population under 30 years was not the same in the period 2000-2013. The most remarkable was the decrease of children aged between 10 – 19 years: since 2000 by 32.88 % and since 2005 by 25.23 %. During the last 13 years the number of children aged 0 – 9 years decreased by 11.11 %; number of young people aged 20 – 29 years decreased by 11.91 %. During the last six years the number of children aged 0 – 9 years decreased by 3.82 %; number of young people aged 20 – 29 years decreased by 12.86 %.

The unequal decrease of number of young people aged 0 – 9, 10 – 19 and 20 – 29 years between 2000 – 2013 resulted in change of composition of population aged 0 – 29 according to these age groups. While in 2000 from the total number of inhabitants aged 0 – 29 years 26.59 % fell to the age group 0 – 9 years, 35.36 % fell to age group 10 – 19 years and 38.05 % to age group 20 – 29 years, by 2005 the portion of age group 0 – 9 years decreased to 24.49 % and of age group 10 – 19 years decreased to 34.14 %; the portion of age group 20 – 29 years increased to 41.37 %. During the next eight years the proportion of age group 0 – 9 increased by 29.22 %, while the portion of age group  20 – 29 years decreased to 41.44 % and portion of age group 10 – 19 years decreased to 29.34 %.


Population aged 0 – 29 years as at 31 December according to age groups of 10 years

Age group (in years) Year Indices (in %)
2000
2005
2013
2013/2000
2013/2005
Number of persons
0 - 9
635 337
543 996
564 773
88.89
103.82
10 - 19
844 903
758 418
567 060
67.12
74.77
20 - 29
909 261
919 169
800 932
88.09
87.14
0 - 29
2 389 501
2 221 583
1 932 765
80.89
87.00
Composition in %
0 - 9 26.59
24.49
29.22


10 - 19 35.36
34.14
29.34


20 - 29 38.05
41.37
41.44


0 - 29 100.00
100.00
100.00


Source:
Demografia a sociálna štatistika: Vekové zloženie obyvateľstva Slovenskej republiky 2000. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2001.
Demografia a sociálna štatistika: Vekové zloženie obyvateľstva Slovenskej republiky 2005. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2006.
Demografia a sociálna štatistika: Vekové zloženie obyvateľstva Slovenskej republiky 2013. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2014.


In 2013, the place of permanent residence within the territory of the SR was changed by 84 563 persons, by 2.99 % less than in 2005 and by 9.97 % more than in 2000. In 2013, the municipality of permanent residence was changed per 1 000 inhabitants by 15.6 persons; in 2005 the number reached 16.2 and in 2000 14.2 persons. A prevailing type of internal migration is in the long term migration to shorter distances, that is, into a municipality in the same district, where the permanent residence is changed by almost half of the persons from the total migration volume (in 2013 it was 46.20 %, in 2005 46.76 % and in 2000 45.83 %). Roughly a third of people migrates from district-to-district within the same region (in 2013 28.76 %, in 2005 29.86 % and in 2000 31.63 %), and a quarter of persons from all migrants migrates from one region to another (in 2013 25.04 %, in 2005 23.28 % and in 2000 22.54 %).


Internal migration of population


Year Indicies (in %)
2000 2005 2013
2013/2000
2013/2005
Average state of the population0
5 400 679 5 387 285 5 413 392,5
100.13
100.38
Number of migrating people in total 76 898 87 170 84 563
108.10
95.36
Of which from municipality to municipality absolute number 35 243 40 764 39 070
108.00
93.37
in % 45.83 46.76 46.20


from district to district absolute number 24 321 26 025 24 322
100.53
93.95
in % 31.63 29.86 28.76


from region to region
absolute number 17 334 20 381 21 171
118.92
101.14
in % 22.54 23.38 25.04


per 1000 inhabitant1 14.2
16.2
15.6


Note: 0 Years 2000 and 2005: status on the 1st
1 Converted to mi-year state

Source:
Demografia a sociálna štatistika: Vývoj obyvateľstva v Slovenskej republike 2007. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2008.
Demografia a sociálne štatistiky: Vývoj obyvateľstva v Slovenskej republike a krajoch v rokou 2013. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2014.


According to results of the Statistical Office of the SR from the Labour Force Survey in 2012 the Slovak Republic had 2 706.5 thousand of economically active people, which is by 3.8 % more than in 2000 and by 2.3 % more than in 2005. As a whole 2 315.3 thousand people were employed, of which 157.4 thousand people (6.8 %)  in education sector.

The unemployment rate in 2013 was 14.2 %, which is by 2.0 of percentage point less than in 2005 and by 4.4 of percentage point less than in 2000. The average number of unemployed in 2013 was 386 thousand, of which 73 thousand (18.9 %) aged 15 – 24 years. The total number of unemployed persons compared to 2000 decreased by 20.4 %, compared to 2005 by 9.7 %. The proportion of unemployed aged between 15 – 24 years since 2000 decreased by 11.7 of  percentage point and since 2005 by 3.4 of percentage point.


Rate of Employment and Unemployment


Year
Indicies (in %)
2000
2005
2013
2013/2000
2013/2005
Economically active persons (in thousand persons)1
2 608.2
2 645.7
  2 715.3
103.8
102.3
Of which
employed
2 101.7
2 216.2
2 329.3
110.2
104.5
unemployed
485.2
427.5
386
77.8
88.3
Of the total number of employeed in education sector
in thous.persons
161.6
163.7
163.6
97.4
96.2
in %
7.7
7.4
7.0


Of the total number unemployed the persons aged 15-24 years
in thous.persons 153.4
95.5
73.0
49.2
79.1
in %
31.6
22.3
18.9


Economic activity rate (in %)
males
68.6
68.4
68.1


females
52.6
51.3
51.0


Unemployment rate (in %)
18.6
16.2
14.2


Note:
1 According to workforce survey – average numbers. Years 2000 and 2005 including soldiers in compulsory military service

Source:
Slovenská republika v číslach 2003. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2004.
Slovenská republika v číslach 2006. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2007.
Slovenská republika v číslach 2014. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2014.
Zamestnanosť podľa výberového zisťovania pracovných síl v roku 2014. Bratislava : ŠÚSR.


Labour earnings, particularly wages, are a decisive element of the population income. The average  gross monthly nominal wage of an employee in the economy of the Slovak Republic in 2013 reached  824.0 Eur at the growth by 43.70 % compared to 2005 and by 117.18 % compared to 2000. The average gross monthly nominal wage of an employee in education sector compared to 2005 recorded an increase by 54.04 % (from 468.7 Eur to 722.0 Eur) and compared to 2000 an increase by 154.04 % (from 298.4 Eur to 722.0 Eur). Thus the lag in the average gross nominal monthly wage of employee in education sector as compared to that of employee in the economy decreased from 21.35 % in 2000 to 18.26 % in 2005 and to 12.38 % in 2013. 


Wages


Year
Indices (in %)
2000
2005
2013
2013/2000
2013/2005
Average gross nominal monthly wage of employees in the economy of the SR converted to persons in total (in Eur)
379.4
573.4
824.0
217.18
143.70
In education sector
298.4
468.7
722.0
241.95

154.04

Difference compared to average gross nominal monthly wage of employee in the economy of the SR (in %)
-21.35
-18.26
-12.38


Source:
Slovenská republika v číslach 2003. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2004.
Slovenská republika v číslach 2006. Bratislava : ŠÚSR, 2007.
Preiemerná mesačná mzda v hospodárstve SR v roku 2014. Bratislava : ŠÚSR.
Preiemerná mesačná mzda podľa odvetví v roku 2014. Bratislava : ŠÚSR.


Official language and Minority Languages

On the territory of the Slovak Republic, the state official language is the Slovak language. The state official language has precedence before the other languages used in the territory of the Slovak Republic. Its use is specified by the Act on the State Language of the Slovak Republic No. 270/1995 of Law Code, as amended. State bodies and state organisations, bodies of territorial state administration and bodies of legal public establishment are obliged to use the official language during the performance of their activities over the entire territory of the Slovak Republic.  Legal regulations, decisions and other public papers, discussions of public legal bodies, management of office agendas and church agendas and religious organisations dedicated to the public, the presentation of official titles of municipalities and their parts, chronicle maintenance must all be in the official language.  Teaching of the official state language is mandatory at all primary and secondary schools.  Other languages than the official language may be the language of instruction and testing to the extent allowed by law. 

Judicial proceedings, administration procedures, decisions and records from courts and administrative bodies are created and produced in the official language. Rights of person belonging to a national minority and ethnic groups or rights of foreigners who do not master the official language are arranged for translation and interpretation under the conditions stated by law. Names of municipalities, streets, notices, advertisements and announcements aimed at informing the public must be presented in the official language. The translation of these items into another language is possible, but the translated text can follow the same text in the official language in the same size.

The Act No. 184/1999 of the Law Code on the use of national minority languages as amended by subsequent provisions allows for members of a national minority to use their minority language in official communications if it meets the condition stated in this law. This condition is that citizens of the Slovak Republic who belong to national minorities must make up more than 20% of the population of the municipality according to the last population census.
In addition to Slovak majority population, the territory of the Slovak Republic is inhabited by more national minorities. According to census results from May 21, 2011, the total of 5 397 036 permanent residents is comprised of 12.26 % of inhabitants belonging to national minorities (661 768 people in total). Out of these, 69.28 % is comprised of people belonging to Hungarian minority. Their number as at May 21, 2011 was 458 467 of people and they comprised 8.49 % of the total population of the SR.

The second biggest national minority in the Slovak Republic is the Romany minority. As at 21st May 2011, 105 738 Romany gypsies were registered, who make up 1.96 % of the total population. However, this number does not correspond to the real number of inhabitants of Romany origin residing in the Slovak Republic. Based on the result of population and housing census in 1970 and 1980, and on national committee registers of permanent Gypsy – Romany residents before 1989, they estimate that the territory of the Slovak Republic is currently inhabited by approximately 400 thousand Romany gypsies.
Due to the separation of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (1st January 1993) members of Czech, Moravian and Silesian nationality found themselves in the position of a minority. As at 21st May 2011, 33 653 Czechs and Moravians, who made up 0.62 % of the total Slovak Republic population, lived in the Slovak Republic.

The more numerous national minorities living in the territory of the Slovak Republic are two other minorities: Ruthenian and Ukrainian. As at 21st May 2011, there were 33 482 Ruthenians and 7 430 Ukrainians (0.62 % of the total population) residing in the Slovak Republic.

As far as population size is concerned, the above-mentioned minorities are followed by so called Carpathian Germans. As at 21st May 2011, 4 690 people claiming German nationality lived in the Slovak Republic, who comprised 0.09 % of the total population.

The portion of other national minorities registered in the Slovak Republic was 0.32 % out of the total population according to the census as at 21st May 2011.


 Population by nationality

Nationality Population according to population and housing census
as at 26 May 2001 as at 21 May 2011
in person in % in person in %
Slovak 4 614 854 85.79 4 352 775
80.65
Hungarian 520 528 9.68 458 467 8.49
Romany 89 920 1.67 105 738
1.96
Czech, Moravian, Silesian 44 620 0.83 33 653
0.62
Ruthenian 24 201 0.45 33 482
0.62
Ukrainian 10 814 0.20 7 430
0.14
German 5 405 0.10 4 690
0.09
Polish 2 602 0.05 3 084
0.06
Others 12 009 0.22 15 224
0.28
Not given 54 502 1.01 382 493
7.09
Total 5 379 455 100.00 5 397 036
100.00

Source:
Sčítanie obyvateľov, domov a bytov : Základné údaje. Bratislava : ŠÚ SR, 2001.
Population and housing census in 2011: Selected final results. Bratislava: ŠÚ SR, 2012.


In agreement with the above nationality composition of population the most frequent minority language in the Slovak Republic is Hungarian (especially in southern Slovakia). Next to follow are the Ruthenian and Ukrainian languages (especially in eastern Slovakia). The use of the Czech language in official communication fulfils the requirement of understanding with the official language, insofar the international agreements binding for the Slovak Republic , do not specify otherwise.

At present, the education and training in Hungarian in the Slovak Republic are carried out at the level of kindergartens, primary, secondary schools and higher education institutions, in Ukrainian at the level of kindergartens, primary and secondary schools, in Ruthenian at the level of kindergartens and primary schools and in German language at the level of primary schools. In addition, at some primary schools the instruction of a national minority language and literature as a subject has been introduced (Ukrainian language and literature, Ruthenian language and literature, German language and literature and Romany language and literature).

Religions

The Slovak Republic is religiously neutral, that is, there is no official religion existing in it. Freedom of religious denomination is ensured under law.

The degree of the population religiosity is high. At the population census of 2011, 75.97 % of people ranked among the believers, 13.44 % were declared as persons with no religion and 10.59 % did not show any religion. Majority of believers are of Roman-Catholic denomination.


Religiosity


Population according to population and housing census
as at 26 May 2001  as at 21 May 2011
in person in % in person in %
with religious denomination 4 521 549 84.05 4 100 237
75.97
no religion 697 308 12.96 725 362
13.44
unidentified religion 160 598 2.99 571 437
10.59
Total
5 379 455 100.00 5 397 036
100.00

Source:
Sčítanie obyvateľov, domov a bytov : Základné údaje. Bratislava : ŠÚ SR, 2001.
Sčítanie obyvateľov domov a bytov 2011: Vybrané definitívne výsledky. Bratislava : ŠÚ SR, 2012.


Population with religious denomination according to church

Church Population according to population and housing census
as at 26 May 2001 as at 26 May 2001
in person in % in person in %
Roman-Catholic 3 708 120 81.11 3 347 277
81.64
Evangelic 372 858 8.16 316 250
7.71
Greek-Catholic 219 831 4.81 206 871 5.05
Calvin 109 735 2.40 98 797
2.41
Orthodox 50 363 1.10 49 133
1.20
Others 111 005 2.43 81 909
2.00
Total 4 571 912 100.00 4 100 237
100.00


Source:
Sčítanie obyvateľov, domov a bytov : Základné údaje. Bratislava : ŠÚ SR, 2001.
Sčítanie obyvateľov domov a bytov 2011: Vybrané definitívne výsledky. Bratislava : ŠÚ SR, 2012.


At present, there are 18 churches and religious communities registered in the Slovak Republic.

After the regime change in 1989 the relations between the State and churches have changed. In independent Slovak Republic the restitutions of church property took place. Churches received back the properties that had been confiscated to them after 1948.

Also, the separation of Church from the State was required, however, it has not yet been realised. The churches are still supported through the State budget, where they have their own expense item. Simultaneously, the churches have an income from their own property revenues (both movable and immovable), and from funds offered to the church by their believers, as well as gifts, eventually, voluntary contributions; the believers also help to the church without any claim of rewards (e.g., at building sites of new or reconstruction of old church premises).

The individual churches have some space reserved in public media for presentation of their activities and opinions on topical social and ethic-moral problems.


Legislation References

Act No. 270/1995 on official language of the Slovak Republic and on the change and supplement to some acts as amended by subsequent provision (Act of the National Council of the SR).