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Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

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Overview Slovakia

Contents

Slovakia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Slovakia:Historical Development

Slovakia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Slovakia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Slovakia:Political and Economic Situation

Slovakia:Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Slovakia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Slovakia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Slovakia:Organisation of Private Education

Slovakia:National Qualifications Framework

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Slovakia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Funding in Education

Slovakia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Slovakia:Higher Education Funding

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Slovakia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Slovakia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Higher Education

Slovakia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Slovakia:First Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Bachelor

Slovakia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Slovakia:Second Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Slovakia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Slovakia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Slovakia:Main Providers

Slovakia:Main Types of Provision

Slovakia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Slovakia:Teachers and Education Staff

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Management and Other Education Staff

Slovakia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Slovakia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Quality Assurance

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Educational Support and Guidance

Slovakia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Slovakia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Slovakia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Slovakia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Higher Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Slovakia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Slovakia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:National Reforms in School Education

Slovakia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Slovakia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Slovakia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Slovakia:European Perspective

Slovakia:Legislation

Slovakia:Institutions

Slovakia:Glossary

Alternative schools differ from traditional school in its content, methods, forms, position of pupil and teacher, organisation of classes, school management, school founder, parents’ position in relation to school. Of course, in education of children the State cannot leave to them absolute freedom, the above These schools in Slovakia are also obliged to adhere to  the State educational programme. 

All alternative schools in this country are private. They have various variants, the best known are: Waldorf school (Steiner’s Pedagogy), M. Montessori (M. Montessori’s Pedagogy), Alternative school of C. Freinet, Jena-plan school, Dalton school

In Slovakia, the Education Act has opened the chance of individual education of children at home, namely, up to Grade 5 of primary school, upon a parent’s request, and if the latter secures a person fulfilling qualification requirements of higher education of the second level qualified for teachers of the lower stage of primary school. 

According to the Education Act, the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sports of the SR is in charge of experimental verification at schools and educational facilities the aim of which is to achieve or verify in practice the knowledge,  incentives, for changes and amendment of educational documents, for development of alternative educational programmes or teaching programmes, verification of foreign  models.  

In some schools there were verified alternative programmes and there were established the first alternative schools, e.g. integrated thematic teaching, Waldorf schools, open schools, Rogerian schools, schools for the gifted children, etc. 


Integrated Thematic Teaching

The experimental verification of the integrated thematic teaching started in the school year 1992/93. There are several schools where the teachers are trying to put some elements of this system into practice. Within the verification of the project at primary schools emphasis is put on the following:

  • integration of subject matter into round-the-year themes and key points (based on elementary teaching in Grades 1 and 2 and on science and home history in Grades 3 and 4),
  • use of a new teaching strategy, such as rules of class management (teacher - pupil relationships, peers relationships), organisation of shift teaching in three blocs (two blocks are carried out in the morning, one in the afternoon), with one teaching bloc lasting 90 minutes,
  • celebration of pupils’ outcomes with their parents (organised quarterly) where the pupils demonstrate the knowledge they had received during the past period.


Waldorf Schools

Waldorf School in Bratislava is currently the only school of this type in Slovakia. The school was founded in July 2001; in 2015, the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic should finish the validation process which will determine the school’s future. The schools adapt to different degrees of elements of Waldorf pedagogy and adapt them to their conditions. They are mainly:

  • time division and alteration of teaching units in the form of epochs,
  • less usual forms and methods of work, such as celebrations and ceremonies,
  • higher concentration of attention and time on artistic activities stressing the role of experience and creativity,
  • enrichment of the structure of subjects by playing a musical instrument, mostly a fipple flute,
  • reduced use of textbooks, and introduction of supplementary reading, e.g. encyclopaedias,
  • oral form of pupil evaluation,
  • establishing a closer contact and co-operation between the school and pupils’ families.


Montessori Schools

The influence of the pedagogic system of Maria Montessori in Slovakia is considerably lower than the influence of Waldorf pedagogy. Since the school year 1993/94, an alternative teaching project has been experimentally verified. The project focuses mainly on the following:

  • application of traditional Montessori educational materials and other aids which help develop different abilities of children,
  • several teachers working in one class,
  • organisation and time structure of individual activities of children which in the course of the day stem from the scheme used in Montessori schools.


Schools for exceptionally gifted children

In the school a class for development of pupils‘ gifts may be created with the founder’s consent. The establishment of class with extended teaching of some subjects is conditional on professionally skilled personnel, technical and material provision of educational process. The enrolment of pupil in the class with extended teaching of some subjects or groups of subjects, requiring verification of special knowledge, skills and talents is done by headteachers on the basis of the pedagogical-psychological counselling centre’s statement.  

The pupil is integrated in the class on the basis of informed consent of the pupil‘s guardian. The classes with extended teaching may be divided into two groups if the number of pupils exceeds 23 pupils.

Since 1993 there is also a project of alternative care for gifted children launched in Slovakia.  Public schools must follow national curricula, although extended ones, using special textbooks, as well. The basic feature of these schools is, e.g., lower number of pupils in classrooms (in Grades 1-4 maximum number is 15 pupils, in Grades 5-9 22 pupils). Classes are divided into groups in some subject teaching. During classes there are two teachers present, the intensity and efficiency of classes are also increased by help of lectors (mathematics, informatics, foreign language); teaching English and informatics starts as early as Grade 1, development of individual or group projects, seminar projects, new methods of evaluation and self-evaluation, support and stimulation of children for using higher forms of thinking and creativity, specific atmosphere of teaching marked by empathy and tolerance.

The teachers who teach in such schools are selected through competition procedures. They have to take psychological tests, personality tests, tests for creativity. They must be friendly and without dominant features so that the children could fully demonstrate their skills.

The gifted children identified according to guides on integration of children into special educational programmes approved by the Ministry of Education with operation since 2005, may be integrated into common classrooms of primary schools, eventually, to establish for them special classrooms. At individual integration it is necessary to work out individual educational plan – programme for intellectually gifted pupil. At education of such pupils, in addition to cognitive processes, the attention is also aimed at development of the entire personality of the pupil, particularly his emotionality and social relations. At integrated education it is necessary to provide for cooperation with the school psychologist or psychologist of pedagogical-psychological counseling centre.


Legislative Reference:

Act No. 245/2008 on education and training (Education Act) and on the change and supplement to some acts as amended by subsequent provisions (Act of the National Council of the SR).