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Slovakia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

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Overview Slovakia

Contents

Slovakia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Slovakia:Historical Development

Slovakia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Slovakia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Slovakia:Political and Economic Situation

Slovakia:Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Slovakia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Slovakia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Slovakia:Organisation of Private Education

Slovakia:National Qualifications Framework

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Slovakia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Funding in Education

Slovakia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Slovakia:Higher Education Funding

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Slovakia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Slovakia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Higher Education

Slovakia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Slovakia:First Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Bachelor

Slovakia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Slovakia:Second Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Slovakia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Slovakia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Slovakia:Main Providers

Slovakia:Main Types of Provision

Slovakia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Slovakia:Teachers and Education Staff

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Management and Other Education Staff

Slovakia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Slovakia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Quality Assurance

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Educational Support and Guidance

Slovakia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Slovakia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Slovakia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Slovakia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Higher Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Slovakia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Slovakia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:National Reforms in School Education

Slovakia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Slovakia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Slovakia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Slovakia:European Perspective

Slovakia:Legislation

Slovakia:Institutions

Slovakia:Glossary

This chapter provides a thematic and chronological overview of national reforms and policy developments since 2012.

The introduction of the chapter describes the overall education strategy and the key objectives across the whole education system. It also looks at how the education reform process is organised and who are the main actors in the decision-making process.

The section on ongoing reforms and policy developments groups reforms in the following broad thematic areas that largely correspond to education levels: Early childhood education and care; School education; VET and Adult learning; Higher education; and Transversal skills and Employability. Inside each thematic area, reforms are organised chronologically. The most recent reforms are described first.

Finally the section on the European perspective provides links to European strategies in which education and training have a prominent role.



Milénium

Changes in our society after 1989 called for a change of the system of education and the content of education and training process gradually began to be innovated. This period can be characterized as the transformation of the system of education with several stages. 

In 2001, the National Programme of Education and Training in the Slovak Republic for the next 15 - 20 years (hereinafter referred to as „Milénium“) (SK language) was approved. Milénium defined the major priorities and characterized the changes necessary to increase the population’s level of education. 

Milénium described the strengths and weaknesses of the Slovak system of education between 1990 and 2000 and set the basic foundations and principles of changes in education and training. 

The material contains description of the biggest problems in regional education and describes the most significant causes of these and defines the target state, changes, and at the same time the proposal of legislative measures, particularly in relation to the amendment of:

  • Education Act, 
  • Act on Vocational Education and Training, 
  • Act on State Administration in Education and School Self-Governing Bodies, 
  • Act on Financing of Primary Schools, 
  • Secondary Schools and School Facilities, 
  • proposal to amend other generally binding legal regulations. 

The first specific significant changes took place after the adoption of the Act on State Administration in Education and School Self-Governing Bodies, which propagated the process of decentralisation and defined the jurisdiction, organisation and role of state administration bodies in education. 

At the same time, the Act on Financing of Primary Schools, Secondary Schools and School Facilities defining the financing of schools was passed. 

Another substantial reform that emerged from Milénium came in 2008, when Education Act, which superseded two existing acts and significantly simplified the legislative environment for schools and school facilities, was passed. Most of all, it introduced a two-level model of curricula consisting of national curricula and school curricula. 

The area of vocational education saw the passing of the Act on Vocational Education and Training, which for the first time defined, until the time of its approval, non-existing mechanisms ensuring participation of employers in vocational education and training. At the same time, it created conditions for improving vocational education and training. 

The latest reform adopted in compliance with Milénium is theAct on Educational and Professional Staff defining qualification requirements for pedagogical and professional staff, which created conditions for professional development within the career system and introduced a system of remuneration. 


Overall national education strategy and key objectives


National reform programme of the Slovak Republic 2016

National reform programme of the Slovak Republic 2016 (NRP) (pdf) describes structural measures to be taken by the Slovak Government in the next two years after the programme‘s approval. The material takes into account the policy statement of the Government of the Slovak Republic for the period of 2016-2020.

Changes in the area of education, in compliance with the European Commission evaluation from February 2016, focus on making the teaching profession more attractive, mostly by means of increasing teachers’ salary, extension of kindergarten capacities, promotion of dual education and support of the integration of marginalized groups.


Action plan for the National programme of education development for 2017

The Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic created an Action plan for the National programme of education development for 2017 containing a list of specific tasks including further details and deadlines.

In 2017 the Ministry of Education planning to:

  • Discuss a draft amendment of the act on funding of primary schools, secondary schools and school facilities in the government meeting 
  • Create educational programmes for pre-primary education of disabled children, 
  • Increase statutory salaries of teaching and professional staff in regional education by 6%, 
  • Provide funding for higher education institutions’ development projects focused on the support of the institutions’ internationalisation,
  • Present a proposal for the change of higher education quality assurance system,
  • Create a proposal of a new set of higher education study fields.


Updated Action plan for the Strategy of the Slovak Republic for Romany Integration up to 2020

The Government of the Slovak Republic approved the revised Action Plans for the Strategy of the Slovak Republic for Romany Integration in February. Its main goal in the education area is to reduce the differences between the education level of Romany and the population average by means of improving education of children from marginalised Romany communities. 

The government set the following partial goals:

  • Increase the participation of children from marginalised Romany communities in pre-primary education,
  • Provide programmes of second chance for early school leavers,
  • Improve the results of primary schools with pupils from marginalised Romany communities /socially disadvantaged environment  so that they reach the Slovak national average,
  • Increase the proportion of people from marginalised Romany communities with completed secondary vocational education and full secondary education
  • Increase the number of schools using Romany language in teaching, 
  • Increase the proportion of pupils from marginalised Romany communities in regular primary school classes,
  • Implement and evaluate programmes of inclusive education in kindergartens, primary and schools and secondary schools.

The action plan aims to bring Romany population education level to the national average by means of a systematic and well-addressed support of education of children and pupils of socially disadvantaged environment.




Overview of the education reform process and drivers

Department concepts approved by the government of the SR, by which the ministry of education defined the strategic objectives of long-term development in individual areas of regional education:

  • Concept of Informatization and Digitalization of the Department of Education with Outlook to 2020,
  • Strategy of the Slovak Republic for Roma Integration of up to 2020,
  • National Strategy for Human Rights Protection and Promotion in Slovakia,
  • The National Programme for the Development of Living Conditions for Citizens with Disabilities for the Period 2014-2020,
  • The Concept of Work with Sport Talented Youth for the Period 2015-2020.