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Slovakia:Main Types of Provision

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Overview Slovakia

Contents

Slovakia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Slovakia:Historical Development

Slovakia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Slovakia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Slovakia:Political and Economic Situation

Slovakia:Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Slovakia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Slovakia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Slovakia:Organisation of Private Education

Slovakia:National Qualifications Framework

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Slovakia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Funding in Education

Slovakia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Slovakia:Higher Education Funding

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Slovakia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Slovakia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Higher Education

Slovakia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Slovakia:First Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Bachelor

Slovakia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Slovakia:Second Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Slovakia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Slovakia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Slovakia:Main Providers

Slovakia:Main Types of Provision

Slovakia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Slovakia:Teachers and Education Staff

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Management and Other Education Staff

Slovakia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Slovakia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Quality Assurance

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Educational Support and Guidance

Slovakia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Slovakia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Slovakia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Slovakia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Higher Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Slovakia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Slovakia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:National Reforms in School Education

Slovakia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Slovakia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Slovakia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Slovakia:European Perspective

Slovakia:Legislation

Slovakia:Institutions

Slovakia:Glossary

Slovak system of lifelong learning distinguishes four kinds of the continuing education, namely: 

  • The further vocational education in the accredited programme which leads to supplementing, updating, extending or improving the qualification needed for pursuit of professional activity. 
  • The re-qualification accredited education in the accredited education programme, which leads to acquisition of partial or full qualification of professional competence for one or more working activities in another profession than that for which the person gained the qualification through school education. 
  • The continuing education in educational programmes which enable the participant of continuing education to supplement, extend, improve or update his/her qualification as a condition  for pursuit of professional activities in agreement with special provisions. 
  • The special-interest education, civic education, senior education and other kinds of education whereby the participant of the continuing education satisfies his/her interests, gets integrated into the civil society and develops his/her personal abilities. 


Provision to Raise Achievement in Basic Skills


Low level of basic skills is often a consequence of early termination of school attendance. However, the Slovak Republic has a strong tradition of formal school education and the proportion of population who leave the system of initial education is therefore low.

In spite of that, there are courses designed for those who left system of initial education early. Courses for those interested in achieving lower secondary education are organised by primary schools. Education is completed by a committee examination in all subjects, except for subjects with educational focus; certificate with a clause on the achieved level of education is awarded. This education is equivalent to ISCED 2 level.

At the local level, so called second chance projects designed for participants from socially disadvantaged environment in particular are considerably successful. These projects also allow successful completion of primary education. Their curriculum is adjusted in such was that the participants manage to cover educational content of the seventh, eighth and ninth grade in one academic year. However, these are individual initiatives rather than global solutions.

Graduates from this type of education can just continue with their studies at secondary schools and keep extending their qualification. Thus, they increase their chance to obtain appropriate job and social status, and to integrate into a fulfilling life.


Provision to Achieve a Recognised Qualification during Adulthood

Adults can obtain recognized professional qualification mainly through accredited further education programmes. These educational programmes are provided by various further education institutions. Their goal is to supplement, update, extend or improve the qualification needed for the pursuit of professional activities.

The Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic gives accreditation to educational programmes of further education based on the approval of the Accreditation Commission for Further Education. All educational programmes with valid accreditation are registered in the further education information system. Education in an educational programme is completed by a final examination, goal of which is to verify further education participant’s knowledge and skills.  The examination also verifies the ability to pursue professional activities the educational programme relates to. Upon successful completion of the final exam, the competent educational institution will award the graduate of an accredited further education programme a certificate of full or partial qualification of nationwide validity.

Recognition of professional qualification is provided by the examination in a competent educational institution. This verification and assessment of professional competence does not discriminate any applicants - required knowledge and skills can be acquired either through an accredited educational programme or in practice. Upon successful completion of the final examination, the applicant will obtain a certificate of partial or full qualification.

Although the certificate is an authentic instrument with nationwide validity it does not lead to a higher level of education. Its acceptance in practice may vary from employer to employer. For some particular qualifications, it serves as a document that entitles a person to apply for a particular trade licence.

Financing of accredited educational programmes is usually covered by the participants themselves. However, in the case of registered job-seeker, there are tools for co-financing of further professional education from public sources via Offices of Labour, Social Affairs and Family.

Currently employed people can also take part in subsidized further education. It usually takes place as a part of big national projects supported mainly from European sources, for example Further education and counselling for adults as a tool for better succeeding on the labour market (CVANU).

Experts of particular qualification can obtain a certificate of professional competence as a part of continuing learning. Such certificate serves as proof of the achieved professional competence for the pursuit of various activities and it is governed by the applicable legal regulations, for example: the certificate of professional competence is in compliance with the act on public health, certificate of professional competence is in compliance with the act on mountain rescue service, etc.


Provision Targeting the Transition to the Labour Market

Provision of education and training for adults looking for work is within the competence of the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic and it belongs to the active measures on the labour market.

In order to be provided counselling services and allowance for education and preparation for the labour market  up to 100% of eligible costs, the applicants must be registered as a job-seeker. The education and preparation for the labour market is subsequently provided by the competent Centre of Labour, Social Affairs and Family.

Education and preparation for the labour market takes place in accredited educational programmes or in educational programmes focused on the development of communication, computer, management, social, entrepreneurial and language competencies. Education and preparation for the Labour market can also take place in the form of national and pilot projects.

Job-seekers may arrange their education and preparation for the labour market themselves. If education completion leads to deregistering from job-seekers’ database due to the entry into employment or self-employment, the job-seeker is entitled to an allowance up to 100% of eligible costs, up to a maximum of 600 euro.

As a support of requalification education, project RE-PAS (requalification, opportunity and cooperation) has been running since October 2014. Job-seekers will choose the type of occupational activity which they want to qualify for. At the same time, they will choose the requalification provider of education and training for the labour market; RE-PAS then serves as a proof for an educational institution that the Centre of Labour, Social Affairs and Family will really grant the subsidies.


Provision to Liberal (Popular) Adult education

Universities of the Third Age 


Universities of the Third Age, which have since 1990 spread from Comenius University in Bratislava to other higher education institutions and universities, are important providers of special-interest education. Currently, the universities of the third age can be found at 17 universities and higher education institutions in 13 Slovak cities. 

Educational programmes are prepared mainly for pensioners, however, due to popular public demand the age limit for admission of students was lowered to 50, 45 and in some cases even 40 year. University of the Third Age teachers are usually university teachers who give lectures at a symbolic price. The focus of study programmes usually corresponds with the universities' profiles and the offer is based on the possibilities and conditions of the rectorate, faculties and programme co-organisers. 

Financing comes from several sources, most commonly: the parent higher education institution, gifts, sponsors, and students themselves in the form of enrolment fee. The admission fees at  Universities of the third age in academic year  2016/2017 range from 35 to approximately 85 eur for an academic year, according to the university and study programme type. Applicants of retirement age are usually charged a slightly lower fee than the working applicants. Some of the universities of the third age actively engage in fundraising by means of participation in various calls and grant schemes. 

Since 1994, Slovak universities of the third age have been members of the  Association of the Universities of the Third Age in Slovakia. It now associates the vast majority of the universities of the third age in Slovakia. International contacts are secured through the membership in the Association of the Universities of the Third Age and some universities’ membership in international associations (AIUTA, EFOS).



Cultural-educational activity 


Cultural-educational institutions such as National enlightenment centre , Slovak national museum or Slovak national gallery also participate in adult education. In addition to their other activities, these institutions also organise lectures, debates and seminars that contribute to the development of cultural awareness of the Slovak society. The third and business sector are becoming stronger and stronger subjects of special interest adult education. Thus, they create healthy competition to the state supported institutions in this segment.


Language education 


Language education is provided by various institutions which offer a wide range of language courses and programmes. The majority of adult citizens attend foreign language courses in private or non-state institutions and finance these activities themselves. Foreign language education is often provided by employers, particularly in medium-sized and large enterprises with foreign shareholders, as well as in state and public service where education and performance improvement is obligatory.


Other Types of Publicly Subsidised Provision for Adult Learners


All other forms of education and training of adults available in Slovakia were to a great extent given in the previous subchapters.


Legislative references:

Act No. 5/2004 on employment service as amended by subsequent provision (Act of the National Council of the SR).
Act No. 568/2009 on lifelong learning and on the change and supplement to some acts as amended by subsequent provision (Act of the National Council of the SR).
Act No. 355/2007 Coll. on Protection, Support and Development of Public Health and on the Amendment and Supplement to Selected Laws as amended (National Council of the Slovak Republic Act).
Act No. 544/2002 Coll. on. Mountain Rescue Service as amended (National Council of the Slovak Republic Act).