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Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Slovakia

Contents

Slovakia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Slovakia:Historical Development

Slovakia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Slovakia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Slovakia:Political and Economic Situation

Slovakia:Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Slovakia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Slovakia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Slovakia:Organisation of Private Education

Slovakia:National Qualifications Framework

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Slovakia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Funding in Education

Slovakia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Slovakia:Higher Education Funding

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Slovakia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Slovakia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Higher Education

Slovakia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Slovakia:First Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Bachelor

Slovakia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Slovakia:Second Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Slovakia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Slovakia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Slovakia:Main Providers

Slovakia:Main Types of Provision

Slovakia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Slovakia:Teachers and Education Staff

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Management and Other Education Staff

Slovakia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Slovakia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Quality Assurance

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Educational Support and Guidance

Slovakia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Slovakia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Slovakia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Slovakia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Higher Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Slovakia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Slovakia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:National Reforms in School Education

Slovakia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Slovakia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Slovakia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Slovakia:European Perspective

Slovakia:Legislation

Slovakia:Institutions

Slovakia:Glossary

The basic structure of initial teacher training consists of two streams: 

  1. After completing the primary school the students continue at their study in secondary pedagogical schools and social academies, where upon completing the school-leaving examination they receive qualification of teacher for kindergartens and school facilities. 
  2. After completing the school-leaving examination at secondary school the students continue in their study at faculties of higher education institutions in study fields of multiple subject teaching and special education. Thus, they obtain teacher qualification for primary and secondary schools and school facilities and for work with children with special educational needs. 

Teacher qualification can be obtained by: 

  • Higher education study of selected teacher training programmes at universities or higher vocational education institutions; the graduates can teach subjects they are qualified to teach at primary and secondary schools. 
  • Higher education study at a university or a higher vocational education institution with a concurrent additional pedagogical study; students obtain pedagogical qualification in addition to their professional qualification and they can teach subjects of their professional focus at relevant secondary schools. 
  • Study at a higher vocational education institution and the completion of additional pedagogical study - obtaining qualification to teach relevant vocational subjects at secondary vocational schools.

The teachers with professional qualification may acquire new professional qualification by retraining (e.g., ICT, foreign languages, etc.). 

Qualified teachers can extend their qualification in other subjects or specialisations, e.g. work with children with special educational needs, by means of extended pedagogical study.


Institution, Level and Models of Training

Secondary pedagogical schools and social academies provide especially teacher training for kindergarten teachers and educators, but they also offer training for social workers, governess, and other trainers. The study takes four years and is completed by a school-leaving examination.  

Pedagogical faculties, faculties with accredited study fields of teacher training, and higher vocational education institutions’ faculties with the right to provide additional pedagogical study provide training for specialists for preprimary education, the first stage of primary school and teachers of academic, artistic, educational subjects and teachers of vocational subjects and practical training in primary schools, basic schools of art and in secondary schools. 

The two-level study leads to Bachelor’s and Master’s degree; the first level  is completed by a state final examination and award of the degree of Bachelor (for example, teacher training for kindergartens, tutorship for school clubs, instructors of vocational training). 

The graduate of the first level may also apply for Master’s study in a teaching study programme and obtain teacher qualification for pre-primary, primary, lower and higher secondary education in single and multiple subject specialisation. Master’s study joint with additional pedagogical study provides qualification for secondary school teachers of vocational subjects. 

Teacher training is comprised of theoretical academic training in pedagogy, psychology, and the taught subject areas, which comprises approximately 70% of the curriculum; and of professional didactic and practical preparation, which comprises approximately 30% of the curriculum. Students perform their teaching practice at practice schools under the supervision of their mentor teachers.



Admission Requirements

Every year, higher education institutions publish information on the offered study programmes, study combinations, admission examination requirements and dates. They do so either on their websites or in print. They also publish information about number of applicants to be admitted to the respective study programmes. At the choice the students are aided by tutors in secondary schools. Higher education institutions issue for the students choosing their study the set of questions in individual subjects for entrance examinations showing compulsory and facultative literature, or they organize preparatory courses. 

An applicant for study in a higher education institution is required secondary general or secondary specialised education with school-leaving certificate, and an application supplied with curriculum vitae, health certificate, and an explanation why he/she wants to study the chosen branch. Application forms to higher education institutions are submitted individually in January, February and the entrance examinations are usually held in May and June. In some study programmes also talent examinations are required. They are taken by applicants of teacher training study for the first stage of primary school, at general teacher training in combination with physical education, music and art. 


Curriculum, Level of Specialisation and Learning Outcomes

Traditional content of education and training of future teachers is comprised of theoretical academic training in pedagogy, psychology and the taught subject areas; and the professional didactic and practical preparation.

Pedagogical practice is an integral part of the professional didactic and practical preparation. Students will take part in demonstration, mentoring, and teaching practice. 

Requirements for students’ practical performance are defined by professional competencies: 

  • project competence (planning of teaching)
  • communicative, organisational and managerial competencies ( management of learning processes)
  • diagnostic and intervention competencies ( diagnostics of individuals or group, management of  pupil’s individualised learning)
  • reflexive competences ( work self-reflection, changes and self-improvement)

Organisationaly, the content of initial teacher training is first drawn up from the point of view of educational theory and needs of practice, and is explicitly expressed in the graduate’s profile. From these facts the study plan is derived which is specified in the syllabi of individual subjects with required and recommended literature needed for examinations, marked credit or credit indicated. At the end of study the student demonstrates in his/her thesis and at the State examination if he/she creatively mastered the required content and extent of knowledge, skills and capabilities necessary for performance in practice. 

The responsibility for determination of the content of education is upon individual teacher training faculties. 


Teacher Educators

The required qualification for university teacher educators preparing the fu teachers is the same as that for other university teachers. It is the university education of the second level in the specialisation he/she teaches.

At a higher education institution professors, associate professors, visiting professors, emeriti professors, visiting associate professors, junior lecturers, assistants, lector, and scientific and artistic workers act as teachers. The posts of teachers and research workers of higher education institutions are filled through selection procedures. The way of selection procedures is stipulated by the internal order of a higher education institution or a faculty.


Qualifications, Evaluation and Certificates

The organisation of work at faculties of education and faculties preparing teachers is determined by their statutes, organisational orders, study orders, scholarship and disciplinary orders. The study is organised in terms. A term in most cases lasts 12 - 14 weeks. Students complete individual subjects with a credit, marked credit, examination, comprehensive examination or State examinations. 

The most common form of obtaining teacher qualification is the master’s study. It is completed by the defence of a thesis, the State final examinations and issue of a university diploma showing the study programme pursued. Through the doctoral study, the graduate of the Magister’s study can obtain the scientific-pedagogical degree of Ph.D. 

The teachers of primary schools of art and teachers with specialisation to teach art subjects can achieve the qualification at conservatoires. 


Alternative Training Pathways

In Slovakia there are no alternative ways existing to obtain initial pedagogical qualification except for those mentioned in the part Institution, Level and Models of Training.



Legislation References

Act No. 317/2009 on Professional and Pedagogical Employees and Professional Employees and on the change and supplement to some acts (Act of the National Council of the SR).
Decree No. 437/2009, by which are stipulated qualification criteria and special qualification requirements for individual categories of pedagogical employees and professional employees as amended by subsequent provision (Decree of the Ministry of Education of the SR).