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Slovakia:Higher Education Funding

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Overview Slovakia

Contents

Slovakia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Slovakia:Historical Development

Slovakia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Slovakia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Slovakia:Political and Economic Situation

Slovakia:Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Slovakia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Slovakia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Slovakia:Organisation of Private Education

Slovakia:National Qualifications Framework

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Slovakia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Funding in Education

Slovakia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Slovakia:Higher Education Funding

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Slovakia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Slovakia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Higher Education

Slovakia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Slovakia:First Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Bachelor

Slovakia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Slovakia:Second Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Slovakia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Slovakia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Slovakia:Main Providers

Slovakia:Main Types of Provision

Slovakia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Slovakia:Teachers and Education Staff

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Management and Other Education Staff

Slovakia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Slovakia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Quality Assurance

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Educational Support and Guidance

Slovakia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Slovakia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Slovakia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Slovakia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Higher Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Slovakia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Slovakia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:National Reforms in School Education

Slovakia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Slovakia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Slovakia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Slovakia:European Perspective

Slovakia:Legislation

Slovakia:Institutions

Slovakia:Glossary

Funding

In the area of higher education, the Constitution of the Slovak Republic declares financing according to the possibilities of the society and capabilities of the individual. The state guarantees its citizens factual possibilities to study with the support of the state at a higher education institution, once the complete secondary education or complete secondary vocational education has been acquired. 

Following to the Act No. 175/2008 (full text of the Act 131/2002 of the Law Code on higher education and on amending and supplementing of certain acts, as amended, in public schools the public budget shall:

  1. ensure financing of the education process, operations, solutions of emergency situations,  reconstructions and modernisation of school buildings and their equipment,
  2. contribute to financing the development,
  3. contribute to additions and new construction of schools in which education is deemed to be continuous preparation for  occupation.

In addition, from the state budget, financing is ensured of schools:

  1. established by the state-recognised  churches or religious societies  (hereinafter referred to as  “ the church school”) 
  2. established by other legal entities or natural persons (hereinafter referred to as  “the private school”)

In church schools and in private schools, education and other services may be provided for a charge.

Under the Act No. 131/2002 of the Law Code on higher education, and on amending and supplementing of certain acts, public higher education institutions and state higher education institutions shall, principally be financed from the state budget, with the state budget resources being provided

  • to public higher education institutions through the chapter of the ministry of education or other ministries,
  • to military higher education institutions through the chapter of the ministry of defence,
  • to police academies  through the chapter of the ministry of interior,
  • to health higher education institutions through the chapter of the ministry of health.

Also a private higher education institution may be provided a subsidy from the state budget. The subsidy to a private higher education institution is provided through the chapter of the ministry of education.

The main sources of funding for public higher education institutions are subsidies from the state budget, subject to a special regulation. A public higher education institutions use also other sources to cover expenditure necessary for their activity. The ministry provides subsidies to a public higher education institution for the implementation of accredited study programmes, research, development or artistic activities, the development of higher education institutions and for the social support of students.


Financial Autonomy and Control

The economic instruments following out of the public-law status of higher education institutions permit multi-source financing.  The revenues of a public higher education institution include:

  • a subsidy from the state budget,
  • tuition fees,
  • charges associated with the study,
  • revenues from further education,
  • proceeds of the property and of the intellectual property,
  • revenues from gifts from natural persons and legal entities,
  • proceeds of the business activity and other revenues, if permitted by the law.

Equally, subsidies from municipal budgets and budgets of higher territorial units may comprise the revenue.  Among the instruments of the science and technology financing in Slovakia is the Slovak Research and Development Agency, the budget organization interlinked to the budget of the Slovak Republic through the chapter of the ministry of education. The Agency has been established to support research and development by providing finances for project solution. Another legislative instrument of science and technology support is the Act on incentives for research and development and on amending  the Act No. 595/2003 of the Law Code on the income tax, as amended, which the rules and procedures for providing incentives for research and development undertaken by stipulates from all sectors of the national economy.

The act also creates conditions for increased involvement of entrepreneurs, small, medium-sized and big businesses in research and development and in pursuing the objectives. Two support instruments are designated as incentives, namely the subsidies from the state budget and the income tax relief. Hence entrepreneurs submit applications for the allocation of incentives to support research and development directly, without publication of specific calls. Thus higher education institutions will be able  to apply for additional funding through state contracts and state programmes. Another source of financing are the resources received through the educational programmes of the European Union and the Structural Funds of the EU.

A public higher education institution’s budget expenditure is used for the pursuance of those tasks for which a particular institution has been established. Each public higher education institution  draws up it own budget for the calendar year and is responsible for the economic management on its basis.

The basis of the guide for distribution the budget for operations, after setting aside the wage costs for particular higher education institutions is the splitting of costs into fixed and variable. Fixed costs are particularly the costs of energies and rentals. They are determined on the basis of the real costs incurred in previous periods. 

All the remaining running costs are covered by variable costs. The distribution among particular higher education institutions is determined by a performance indicator and a cost coefficient per performance unit.

The performance indicator gives the number of full-time students increased by the number of part-time students multiplied by the coefficient of 0.4 and the number of PhD students, multiplied by the coefficient of 2.0.

A cost coefficient per performance unit reflects the varying expenditure demands to ensure study at different faculties. With a coefficient equal to 1 are apprised the colleges (faculties) that are least financially demanding (such as, social sciences, law sciences). As faculties most financially demanding are appraised those with highest costs per student, e.g., medical sciences and arts schools. Progressively, adjusted coefficients were used reducing the dispersion between the lowest and highest costs per student. The relevant regulations of the Government specify this in details.


Fees within Public Higher Education

Tuition Fees

Pursuant to § 92 section 4 of the Act No. 131/2002 of the Law Code on higher education, the basis for the assessment of the tuition fee and the fees associated with the study at a public higher education institution is 10% of the average amount falling to one full-time student of the overall current expenditures provided by the ministry of education.

Full-time students of a public higher education institution that have not exceeded the standard length of study, as prescribed for a study programme, do not pay tuition fees. Where a student studies multiple study programmes of the same level, these are taken into account in his or her overall duration of study. The public and state higher education institutions charge for the part-time form of study within the limits set by the government in compliance with the Measure of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research, and Sport of the Slovak Republic which defines maximum tuition fee for an academic year  for part-time study programmes. Public higher education institutions are legally obliged to publish tuition and other fees associated with the next academic year study two months before submission of applications for study, at latest.

Detailed information on the amount of tuition fees associated with higher education can be found in National Student Fee and Support Systems in European Higher Education.

Where a student takes longer time than the standard length to complete a study programme without a serious reason for it, he or she is obliged to pay the higher education institution the tuition fee for each additional year of study, as prescribed by the school concerned.

The higher education institution shall determine the tuition fee and the fees associated with the study for foreign students. Students studying under international agreements pay the tuition fee according to the provisions of relevant agreements. The amount of tuition fee is laid down by the internal regulation of institution.


School Fees

A public higher education institution may require candidates for study to pay fees for the material provision for the admission procedure. The fees are derived from the real costs incurred to the higher education institution by this procedure. Also the issue of the diploma following the relating examination, the issue of documents on the study and supply of their copies the issue of documents on the education completed, if required in a foreign language, with the exception of the diploma supplement which is explicitly issued free of charge the issue of copies of documents on completion of a study and on recognition of equivalence of study documents may be associated with fees.  The amount of fees is determined by the internal regulation of the public higher education institution and is derived from the real cost incurred to the higher education institution by these services.

The tuition fees and the fees associated with the study may be reduced, exempted or their due dates may be deferred by the Rector, with regard taken of the study results, the social situation and health of the student, or other facts deserving special consideration, in accordance with the principles listed in the Statute of the higher education institution.

Full-time students of PhD study programmes do not pay the tuition fees.

The tuition fees and the fees associated with study at a private higher education institution are fixed on individual basis by each higher education institution in relevant internal regulations.


Financial Support for the Learner`s Families

Indirect support implemented outside the education sector is the support in the form of family allowances for students aged up to 25 years, if they prepare for a future occupation in a full-time study. The amount of monthly allowance in 2014 is uniformly 23.52 € per student. The competent Offices of Labour, Social Affairs and Family pay family allowances according to the place of permanent residence of the student until the student turns 25 years. See chapter Early Childhood and School Education Funding for more information.


Financial Support for Learners

Students are provided financial support in direct and in indirect forms. 


Direct Form of Financial Support

Motivation Scholarship

Scholarships represent a direct form of social support. A higher education institution awards student scholarships from the resources earmarked for the purpose from the state budget and /or from own resources through the Fund for Education Support. Awarding motivation scholarships is now in the competence of higher education institutions.  The purpose is to reward the best students and motivate others to improve their academic achievements.  The best 10% of students in full-time bachelor or master degree programmes of every higher education institution are eligible for the merit-based scholarship. Every higher education institution or faculty determines the precise criteria.  Undergraduates are entitled to this scholarship automatically, once they have met all criteria prescribed by the higher education institution. The number of students with awarded scholarships, as well as the amount of scholarship is in the competence of the higher education institution.  The higher education institution publishes the list of students that received the motivation scholarship.


Social Scholarship

Social scholarship is intended for all students of higher education institutions who study at an institution with the seat in Slovakia and have permanent residence in the Slovak Republic. The conditions are determined by the ministry of education and are equal at all higher education institutions. The amount of social scholarship depends on income of the family members who are considered along with the student.

Social scholarship is claimable provided the entitlement conditions are met and concerns only the students of the first year of full-time higher education study.

The application for awarding social scholarship, along with document confirming the amount of income and the family situation (siblings, married state, etc.) should be submitted to the study affairs office or filing department of the faculty or the higher education institution. If the applicant has fulfilled all the conditions for award of scholarship, he/she will receive it from the first day of the month in which he had applied for it. If the applicant is a student of several institutions of higher education, the application is submitted at one institution only.  Social scholarship is recognized for at most four-month period. After end of the period the student may apply for it anew.


Scholarship for the Disadvantaged

For handicapped students, i.e. students with severe disabilities there is a scholarship for the disadvantaged available that allows them to study at a higher education institution of their choice and thus be integrated with their peers.  Students must make an application supported with a medical report on their health state, which is subsequently considered by a committee.


Doctoral Scholarship

The training workplace provides a full-time PhD student with a scholarship for the duration of the PhD study. The amendment of the Act on Higher Education has specified more clearly the award of PhD scholarships to the effect that a PhD student in full-time form of study is entitled to it only during the standard length of his or her study programme and the scholarship is no longer taxable from 1 January 2008. The state pays for the student’s medical insurance only; the student can take out insurance for the purposes of social insurance (pension, sickness and unemployment insurance) as a voluntarily insured person.


Student Loans

The system of social support comprises also the provision of favourable student loans, for example, from Fund for Education Support. The applicant for a loan from the fund may be a student of the Level I, II and III of the first higher education study in the Slovak Republic, in a full-time form that is a national of the SR, and has permanent residence in the territory of the Slovak Republic, but also a foreign student that studies at a higher education institution in the Slovak Republic with a status of a foreign Slovak.  Loans are also provided to students – Slovak Republic citizens studying at a foreign university.  The minimum loan amount is set at € 500 and  maximum loan amount for students of stage I and II of higher education is € 3 000 and  € 6 000 for students of stage III of higher education. Minimum repayment period is 5 years and maximum 10 years. The Fund provides the loans to students once per academic year only and within at most six academic years that need not follow in succession. The loans are not purpose-designated.


Indirect Form of Financial Support

Indirect non-market tools of higher education policy - such as tax relief, family allowances and the supplement to the family allowances, rebates on travel fees and other benefits for dependent children - are applied in the Slovak Republic on long-term, with their quantitative and qualitative characteristics depending on prosperity and the economic power of the society.  Further social services comprise subsidized accommodation and catering services and the contribution for sports and other activities.


Private and Grand-Aided Education

Following to Act No. 131/2002 of the Law Code on Higher Education and on change and supplementing of certain acts, a private higher education institution shall ensure financial resources for its education, research, development or artistic and other creative activities.

The ministry of education may, after a statement of bodies representing higher education institutions, and with the approval of the Government, provide subsidies to the private higher education institution based on a request for the implementation of accredited study programmes, research, development or artistic activity and for the development of the higher education institution. A private higher education institution  may be allocated designated funding for the solution of research and development projects; the way of allocation is stipulated under a special regulation. 

The ministry of education shall grant a private higher education institution a subsidy for the social support of students. The private higher education institution has a legal right to the portion of subsidy based on entitlements of students under § 96 of Act No. 175/2008 of the Law Code.

The private higher education institution shall determine its tuition fees and fees associated with the study at a private higher education institution in its internal regulation.


Legislation Reference

Act No. 131/2002 on higher education and on the change and supplement to some acts as amended by subsequent provision (fully wording in the Act No. 175/2008) (Act of the National Council of SR).
Act No. 596/2003 on state administration in education and school self-government and on change and supplement of some acts as amended by subsequent provisions (Act of the National Council of the SR).
Act No. 396/2012 on the Education Support Fund (Act of the National Council of the Slovak Republic)
Decree No. 102/2006 on granting social scholarship to students of higher education institutions as amended by subsequent provision (Decree of the Ministry of Education of the SR).
Regulation of Government  No. 420/2008 on determination of the sum of fund limits for provision of studies in part-time study programmes (Regulation of Government of the Slovak Republic).
Decree No. 396/2008 on recognition of social scholarship to university students (Decree of the Ministry of Education of the SR).
Act No. 172/2005 on organization of the state support of research and development and on the supplement to Act No. 575/2001 of Law Code on organization of activities of the Government and organizations of the central state administration, as amended by subsequent provisions (Act of the National Council of the Slovak Republic).
Provision of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the SR of 13th August 2013 No. 2013-6555/36831:15-071, whereby the sum of maximum annual tuition fee is set up for part-time study programmes in the 2014/2015 academic year.