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Slovakia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

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Overview Slovakia

Contents

Slovakia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Slovakia:Historical Development

Slovakia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Slovakia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Slovakia:Political and Economic Situation

Slovakia:Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Slovakia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Slovakia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Slovakia:Organisation of Private Education

Slovakia:National Qualifications Framework

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Slovakia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Funding in Education

Slovakia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Slovakia:Higher Education Funding

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Slovakia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Slovakia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Higher Education

Slovakia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Slovakia:First Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Bachelor

Slovakia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Slovakia:Second Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Slovakia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Slovakia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Slovakia:Main Providers

Slovakia:Main Types of Provision

Slovakia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Slovakia:Teachers and Education Staff

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Management and Other Education Staff

Slovakia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Slovakia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Quality Assurance

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Educational Support and Guidance

Slovakia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Slovakia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Slovakia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Slovakia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Higher Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Slovakia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Slovakia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:National Reforms in School Education

Slovakia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Slovakia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Slovakia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Slovakia:European Perspective

Slovakia:Legislation

Slovakia:Institutions

Slovakia:Glossary

Fundamental principles of education policy in Slovakia

Among the fundamental principles of educational policy in Slovakia the following principles rank:

  • democratisation - characterises citizens’ access to education laid down in the Constitution of the Slovak Republic and Education Act No. 245/2008 of the Law Code on education and training;
  • decentralization – transfers decision-making competences on establishment, dissolution and profiling the schools and school facilities to lower levels of public administration bodies (that means, the local and regional authorities);
  • humanism - expresses a teacher - pupil relationship manifested in respect for the pupil’s personality and based on mutual confidence;
  • alternativeness - expresses a possibility of the rise and development of alternative schools from the founder’s point of view, a possibility of experimental verification of alternative educational programmes;
  • autonomy - is manifested at two levels, that means, school’s autonomy and teacher’s autonomy. School’s autonomy is ensured by the status of legal entity of all secondary schools, which is guaranteed for them by the Act No. 29/1984 of the Law Code on the system of primary and secondary schools, as amended by subsequent provisions (Amendment of 1990). Since 2001, the status of legal entity is also related to all primary schools and according to the decision of founder (municipality) to kindergartens, too;
  • transferability - is applied in relation to the pupil and enables him/her vertical and horizontal transferability in both primary school and secondary schools while fulfilling certain requirements;
  • comparability - enables to compare our education system with education systems of the developed countries of the world. All legislative rules are subject to approximation with the aim to bring them nearer to the legislative rules of the European states, in particular;
  • flexibility - is expressed mainly in the curricula, with the aim to adjust to the continually changing requirements of the labour market. This fact is emphasised in the application of the State educational programme into school educational programmes in which are reflected specificities of regional, local character, needs of pupils, parents and school as such.

The basic principle of educational policy considered by the SR government is equality of opportunities for all young people regardless of their social situation, region or ethnicity, and orientation at the needs of children, pupils and youth. It also enforces international dimensions at all levels in such a way so that the educational and research institutes may communicate and compete not only within the area of Slovakia but also internationally.


Rights and Responsibilities in the Field of Education

The rights and responsibilities in education are laid down in the Constitution of the Slovak Republic, Chapter 42, and Section 1 "Everybody has the right to education. School attendance is compulsory"; Section 2 "Citizens have the right to free education at primary and secondary schools, and according to citizen’s abilities and society’s possibilities also at higher education institutions". The Constitution guarantees national or ethnic minorities the right to overall development in Chapter 34, "especially the right to develop their own culture along with other members of the minority, the right to disseminate and receive information in their mother tongue, to join nationality associations, the right to establish and maintain educational and cultural institutions"; Section 2 "Citizens who are part of national or ethnic minorities have under the conditions determined by the law along with the right to master the official language also the right:

  • to education in their own language
  • to use their own language in official communication
  • to take part in the solution of matters concerning national and ethnic minorities.

The Act No. 245/2008 on Education sets out: ”Nobody may be relieved from fulfilment of the compulsory school attendance”. The children and pupils of the citizens belonging to national minorities and ethnic groups are provided, in addition to the right of adopting the State language, also the right to education and training in their own language under the conditions set by this Act.

Education in primary and secondary schools


Education and training in primary schools, secondary schools and school facilities in agreement with the Act No. 245/2008 of the Law Code on education and training (Education Act). The Education Act sets out:

  • principles, aims, conditions, scope, content, forms and organization of education and training in schools and school facilities,  assessment and assignment of marks in education and training, grades, admission, completing of education and training, provision of professional educational-counselling and therapeutic-educational care, education of pupils with special education needs,
  • duration and completion of compulsory schooling,
  • educational programmes at the state level and educational programmes at the school level,
  • system of schools and school facilities,
  • rights and responsibilities of schools and school facilities,
  • rights and responsibilities of children and pupils,
  • rights and responsibilities of parents and guardians.


Education in Higher Education Institutions

Following the Act No. 131/2002 of the Law Code on Higher Education and on the change and supplement to some acts, as amended by subsequent provisions, higher education institutions are supreme educational, research and artistic institutions.

The higher education institution mission is to develop harmonious personality, knowledge, wisdom and creativity in a man and to contribute to the development of education, science, culture and health for the whole society prosperity.

The higher education institutions are public higher education institutions, state higher education institutions and private higher education institutions. Military and police higher education institutions are the state budgetary organisations, medical higher education institutions are state contribution organisation. The private higher education institutions are legal entities.

The main aim of higher education institutions is to provide higher education in the frame of the accredited study programs and creative science research or creative artistic activity. The study programs are realised at three stages (the Bachelor’s, Master’s, Engineer’s or doctoral study programmes). Higher education institutions have the exclusive right to provide higher education and right to award the academic degrees and science-pedagogical titles. The higher education institutions are the legal entities executing research and development in the territory of the Slovak Republic. The main aim of the higher education institutions in the area of science and technology is to realise mainly the basic research, to use the most recent knowledge in the area of science and technology in the process of students’ education and to involve them in creative scientific activity. Higher education institutions are divided according to the character and extent of their activities into university higher education institutions and non-university higher education institutions.


Further Education

The Act No. 568/2009 of the Law Code on lifelong learning regulates further education in which further education provided by institutions of further education follows the level of education achieved in school education. The subject of the adjustments are:

  • accreditation of educational programmes of further education, rules and procedures of verification and recognition of further education outputs focused on receiving partial or full qualification 
  • national system of qualifications
  • system of monitoring and prognosis of educational needs
  • control of conditions of the accreditation and reflection of conditions for awarding certification for performance of the examination to verification of professional competence.

The mission of the further education is to give everybody the chance to complete, deepen and extend his/her education, or to undergo retraining by completing another field of education. Hence the further education is such a training that leads either directly or indirectly to improving the ability of individual to compete, to improvement of his/her  labour market position.

The details on the further education of teaching employees are regulated by the Decree of Ministry of Education SR No.445/2009 of the Law Code on the further education of pedagogical employees.


Legislative References

The most important acts and decrees which deal with school facilities, primary, secondary schools, higher education institutions are: