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Slovakia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

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Overview Slovakia

Contents

Slovakia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Slovakia:Historical Development

Slovakia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Slovakia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Slovakia:Political and Economic Situation

Slovakia:Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Slovakia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Slovakia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Slovakia:Organisation of Private Education

Slovakia:National Qualifications Framework

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Slovakia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Funding in Education

Slovakia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Slovakia:Higher Education Funding

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Slovakia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Slovakia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Higher Education

Slovakia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Slovakia:First Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Bachelor

Slovakia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Slovakia:Second Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Slovakia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Slovakia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Slovakia:Main Providers

Slovakia:Main Types of Provision

Slovakia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Slovakia:Teachers and Education Staff

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Management and Other Education Staff

Slovakia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Slovakia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Quality Assurance

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Educational Support and Guidance

Slovakia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Slovakia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Slovakia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Slovakia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Higher Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Slovakia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Slovakia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:National Reforms in School Education

Slovakia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Slovakia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Slovakia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Slovakia:European Perspective

Slovakia:Legislation

Slovakia:Institutions

Slovakia:Glossary

Funding

Normative Funding

Public budgets funds are designated to finance education in both, public and non-state (church and private) schools. The breakdown of resources from the chapter of the Ministry of Education and the chapter of the Ministry of Interior is based on normatively determined allocations to particular schools. The normative contribution is determined by the number of pupils and the normative volume of financial resources per 1 pupil for the current calendar year. The normative is taken to mean the sum of the wages normative and the operations normative.

The wages normative reflects standardised annual costs of wages and salaries, insurance and mandatory contributions of the employer of employees (personal costs) ensuring education process and the operations of the school falling to one pupil. It is determined, depending on the kind of school, the type of school, salary grade of pedagogical employees, demands involved in a study or vocational field, the form of study and the language of instruction. For primary schools, account is taken of the size of the school as well. The operations normative reflects standardised annual costs of the education process and the operations of the school, excluding personal costs, falling to one pupil. To implement funding of extracurricular education offered by schools and school facilities, education vouchers may be used in accordance with the law.  An education voucher is a special annual state contribution towards extracurricular education of a pupil of primary or secondary school. The ministry determines the value of the voucher.

The financing of education with a combined participation of public and private funds, linked to appropriate forms of school economic management and the prepared fiscal decentralisation will permit increasing the volume of available resources for education while making it more cost-efficient.  


Financing the Specifics 

Within their chapters, the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Interior may, upon request from of a public school’s founder, allocate funds for the specifics. The specifics include:

  1. Pupils’ transportation cost, subject to special regulations,
  2. Wage costs of teacher assistants for pupils with a handicap or gifted pupils, including their insurance contributions and the founder’s insurance contributions.

The Ministry shall allocate a public school founder the funding, principally according to the number of handicapped or gifted pupils and the degree and rate of the handicap or talent of these pupils.


Funding Extraordinary Pupil Results

The Ministry of Education may allocate funding from the chapter of the Ministry of Education and the chapter of the Ministry of Interior to the founders of public schools in the course of a calendar year for extraordinary results of pupils in competitions, subject Olympiads and for the participation of a school in international projects or programmes. These resources are designated for personal costs and the operating costs associated with the preparation of pupils for competitions, for subject Olympiads, and for international projects or programmes.

The Ministry allocates a public school founder the funding according to:

  • the number of pupils taking any of the first three places in the national rounds of competitions or subject Olympiads, the number of places of pupils in the first three places of international rounds of competitions or subject Olympiads, and the number of places in the competitions with no placing being determined; The pupil’s  highest placement is taken into account in the same competition or the subject Olympiad,
  • the number of school participations in international projects or programmes.


Funding in Emergency Situations

The Ministry may allocate the designated funding for the running costs and for the capital expenses to address emergency situations from the chapter of the Ministry of Education and the chapter of the Ministry of Interior to a public school founder, public kindergarten founder and public school facility founder, based on actual need in the course of a calendar year and upon request.  The application is submitted by the founder to the ministry by means of a relevant district office in the county  in the course of the year.

Emergency situations include:

  • an event having seriously exposed to risks the life and health of persons,
  • an event having caused damage to the property of school or the property of school facility which places its operations at risk.


Funding of the Development Projects

Upon request of a founder of a public school, kindergarten or school facility, the Ministry can allocate special purpose funding from chapters of the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Interior for submitted development projects. The founder submits the application to the ministry through a relevant district office in the county.

Development projects are the projects primarily designed to develop education and training in the areas of: 

  • information and communication technologies,
  • language competencies,
  • modernisation and maintenance of compensatory aids for pupils with special educational needs,
  • modernisation and maintenance of teaching aids,
  • sport,
  • healthy lifestyle,
  • environment,
  • cost for equipment for manual skills development
  • modernisation of material-technological resources,
  • renewal of education and training,
  • activities targeting prevention of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances use,
  • promoting knowledge of the historical and cultural heritage of the Slovak Republic,
  • entrepreneurship education, skills and competencies,
  • promotion of vocational education and training,
  • operation of vocational education and training centres pursuant to a special regulation.

Founder’s application contains mainly project's goal, characteristics, implementation schedule, financial security analysis. The founder or other natural and legal persons participate on the implementation of the development project with at least 5% of total cost for the development project’s implementation. The Ministry of Education allocates funding for the implementation of a development project to the founder of a public primary school, based mainly on the use of the development project in education and training within the territorial scope of the district or region.


Funding of expenses for pupils from socially disadvantaged setting

The Ministry may allocate subsidies from the chapter of the Ministry of Education and the chapter of the Ministry of Interior to founders of primary schools and primary schools for pupils with special educational needs for the improvement of conditions of the education and training of pupils from socially disadvantaged setting, pursuant to special regulation. The subsidy for the improvement of conditions of the education and training of pupils from socially disadvantaged setting is allocated to public primary schools by the district office in the county . In case of founders of public primary schools with more than 100 pupils from socially disadvantaged setting, the founders are obliged to use at least 50% of the whole subsidy designated for the improvement of conditions of the education and training of pupils from socially disadvantaged setting for the public primary school teacher assistants' salaries including the insurance.

Financial Autonomy and Control

The Kindergarten

Financing of kindergartens in the founding competence of municipalities, of kindergartens and special kindergartens in the founding competence of church and private founders (hereinafter referred to as “non-public founders”) is regulated by territorial self-government. The municipality receives financial resources from tax revenues for financing kindergartens in its founder competence. Tax shares from state-administered taxes are municipal own revenue and the municipality makes decisions on its use independently. At the same time, based on the application from non-public founders it gives subsidies from these resources for wages and operations of kindergartens and special kindergartens in their founding competence. Municipalities have a duty to provide a non-public founder of a kindergarten or a special kindergarten with funding for children at minimum 90% of the volume of funding.


The Primary School

The church primary school expenses are covered by the state budget at an amount equal to that of public schools. Other sources of funding are the resources of the founders.

Private primary schools´ expenses are subsidized from the state budget. They also use own resources and parental fees for financing.

The overall amount of funding earmarked for financing the needs of primary education from public budgets is determined by a strictly normative method, primarily according to schools performance (number of pupils) and the normative amount (unit costs of pedagogic activity and provision for operations in the relevant type of school). The actual amount of normatives guaranteeing the basic standard is a component of the state budget Act for the relevant calendar year.
Funding for construction investment is allocated individually, namely for particular structures.


The Secondary School

The state budget is the basis for funding secondary schools; after the reform of public administration the resources from higher territorial units (self-governing regions) budgets were added, from which substantive and operating costs will be covered. At the same time, conditions have expanded for raising and using supplementary resources (such as own business activity, funding from the business sphere (gifts, etc.), which along with the possibilities of regions may provide for a higher standard of preparation. Pupils’ guardian share in covering partial costs associated with material catering (canteen meals, accommodation in student dormitories or other school services delivered at parents’ request). The amount of funding from the state budget required for public, private and church secondary schools and its distribution is determined using the normative method (including investment costs).


Fees within Public Education

The Kindergarten

Following to the Act No.  245/2008 of the Law Code on upbringing and education (the Education Act) and on change and amending some acts, as amended; the child’s guardian shall contribute towards partial reimbursement of the kindergarten costs. The amount of monthly contribution to the kindergarten founded by a local state administration body in education (district office in the county) is determined per child by an amount not exceeding 7.5 % of the amount of subsistence minimum   for one dependent child. The kindergarten director shall determine the amount of guardian’s contribution for the stay of the child in a kindergarten.  The founder shall determine the amount of contribution for the stay of a child in a kindergarten founded by the municipality, by a generally binding regulation; the monthly amount per child must not exceed 15% of the amount of subsistence minimum for one dependent child.

The contribution in the kindergarten shall not be payable in respect of a child,

  1. that has one year before starting to compulsory school attendance,
  2. where the child’s guardian supplies a document  to  the kindergarten director to the effect of being in  receipt of the benefit in material hardship and allowances to the benefit in material hardship,
  3. that has been placed in the facility on the basis of a court’s decision.

The contribution in the kindergarten shall not be payable, based on a decision by the founder in respect of a child,

  • whose kindergarten attendance has been interrupted for more than thirty consecutive calendar  days by reason of sickness or for family reasons in a verifiable way,
  • who did not attend the kindergarten during the time of a school holiday, or where operation of the kindergarten was interrupted and it was caused by the founder, or owing to some other serious reasons; in these cases the guardian pays only a proportional part of the determined contribution.


The Primary School and the Secondary School

In accordance with the Constitution of the Slovak Republic, education in primary and secondary schools is free of charge. In other than public schools education may be provided for a charge. Pupils’ guardian share in partial defrayal of costs associated with material catering (canteen meals, accommodation in student dormitories, or other school services delivered upon parental request).


Financial Support for Learner’s Families

Family Allowances

Family allowance is a state social benefit by which the state contributes to a parent or other qualifying person to the upbringing and support of a dependent child. It is conditional upon both the child’s and the parent’s permanent or temporary residence in the territory of Slovakia. The family allowances supplement is designed for people who are retired and continue their care as parents after their dependent child. Only one person may claim the benefits in respect of one child, even if more persons would be eligible.

A parent may claim family allowances from the state until the child completes compulsory school attendance, but not longer than until the child turns 25 years old. The condition for older children is that:

  • they be in continuous preparation for a vocation  studying at a secondary school (from the beginning of the school year in the 1st grade), at a higher education institution  (from the day of enrolment, provided the standard duration according to the study programme is not exceeded)
  • upon completion of compulsory school attendance the child attends a full-time course to acquire primary education  (the age of 18), or
  • the child cannot study or engage in gainful activity by reason of sickness or injury (unfavourable health state).

As continuous preparation are regarded also repeated years of study and other studies or schooling if, with its scope and level, it is placed on an equal footing with the study at a secondary or a higher education institution according to the decision of the ministry of education and is consistent with our regulations. This involves, for example, the studies in schools abroad, in which case for tax purposes a certification is necessary stating the study concerned is comparable with that in the SR schools.


Financial Support for Families of Pupils with Special Education Needs 

The Act No. 600/2003 of the Law Code on the child benefit stipulates the amounts of social benefits with which the state contributes to upbringing and support of a child. Personal and proper care of the parent after a child with a long-term unfavourable health state is an entitlement condition (the child is not in institutional care for longer than 3 consecutive calendar months).


The Kindergarten

Kindergartens for children with special education needs in the founder competence of a local state administration body (district office in the county) in education shall be financed using a normative per child.


The Primary School

With the agreement of the founder, mainstream schools may establish also specialised classes for primary school pupils. 

Where a school sets up a class for pupils with special education needs, procedure subject to a special regulation shall be followed in including pupils, determining the number of pupils in a class, and in organising the pedagogic activity. With the agreement of the founder, the mainstream school may set up a specialised class for pupils that, from the pedagogical aspect, need a compensatory programme, or a development programme, and for pupils that were educated in a school with the educational programme for pupils with special education needs. 

Books and teaching aids are provided free of charge by the home school.

The school shall provide the pupils, who have been exempted from the obligation to attend school and receive treatment in home, individual teaching in the scope of at least two lessons per week. A pupil may be, fully or in part, exempt from classes in a subject, namely for the duration of the entire school year, or a part thereof. A pupil is exempted from a subject by the headteacher, upon a statement made by the teacher and the physician.  If a visually impaired, hearing-impaired, or a physically handicapped pupil is involved, or a pupil with speech impairment, the headteacher exempts the pupil from the obligation after a statement also from a special pedagogue, psychologist and the specialist doctor.


The Secondary School

Following the Education Act scholarship may be provided to a full-time study pupil at a secondary school, an apprentice school, or a practical school, if the pupil is jointly assessed with the persons receiving the benefit in material hardship, subject to a special regulation, or in whom one twelfth of the income for the calendar year preceding the calendar year in which the scholarship is applied for, does not exceed the amount of subsistence minimum.

Scholarship is provided from the beginning of the school year (relevant school year) (during the time of school teaching) on the basis of an application in writing submitted by the pupils or their guardian to the headteacher at which the pupil is studying. The headteacher decides about the award of the scholarship. Scholarship is provided to the pupil monthly, at the amount of 25%, 35% or 50% of the amount of subsistence minimum, according to the school achievement from the beginning of the school year during the classes. 


Financial Support for Learners 

The Kindergarten

Pursuant to Education Act a five-year old child before starting compulsory school attendance has the right to free of charge education in the kindergarten. The ministry of education contributes towards partial reimbursement of costs of upbringing and education of children who have one year before starting compulsory school attendance, in kindergartens that have been included in the network of schools and school facilities of the ministry of education. The contribution for upbringing and education to the kindergarten, per child, for a calendar year amounts to the financial resources at 15 % of the amount of subsistence minimum for one dependent child.

Based on the Decree by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the SR, of 26 November 2008, No. 23609/2008-II/1, on the provision of subsidies in the competence of the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the SR:

  • a subsidy for meals is provided for a child attending a kindergarten and living in the family that is in receipt of the benefit in material hardship and allowances to the benefit, or whose average   monthly income over the last six consecutive months  has not  exceeded the amount of subsistence minimum, and whose parent contributes to meals of the child  with an amount from 0.03 € to 0.17 € per each  meal,  and a subsidy for school supplies  per child that attends a pre-primary facilities  in the last year prior to commencing school.


The Primary School

According to the Constitution of the Slovak Republic education in a primary school shall be free of charge. The state contributes towards reimbursement of expenses for meals and transportation. According to Regulation of Government No. 339/2008 of the Law Code on providing help for promotion of milk and diary consumption at kindergartens, primary schools and secondary schools, a financial support may be provided, subject to application by an applicant for support, which may be a school, a founder of a school, or a natural person – entrepreneur providing milk and dairy products for children. The school milk programme is implemented during breaks or lunchtime break or during extracurricular activity.

With effect from the 1 September 2008, a new benefit was put in place for children in material hardship that comply properly with their compulsory school attendance. As of 1 July 2008, a new Act on maintenance replacement fell effective – No. 201/2008 of the Law Code under which a maintenance replacement is provided not only to children whose parents do not meet their maintenance obligation but also to children whose parents died. 


The Secondary School

Parents whose children study at secondary schools get tax relief, child benefits and other advantages for dependent children, including entitlement to a social scholarship.

A crucial part of the financial provision is the award of secondary education scholarships to full-time students whose parents are dependent on the benefit in material hardship. The basis for the award of scholarship is the decision of the headteacher. Scholarships are subject to submission of application for scholarship, and the determination of a document that the applicant is to enclose with the application for the provision of scholarship. There is also a condition stipulating that a scholarship is given only to a pupil that was not imposed conditional expulsion from school; where this occurs during the time of receipt, the provision of the act ensures recovery of this financial amount.

The scholarship is provided from the beginning of the school year for the relevant school year, during the period of schooling, from 2 September to 30 June. If the applicant applies for the scholarship in the course of the school year, the scholarship in the relevant school year shall be provided from the first day of the calendar month in which the application was made. The school shall review the entitlement and the amount of the pupil’s scholarship upon completion of mid-year grading of the pupil. The Ministry of Education and the Slovak Centre of Scientific and Technical Information - a directly managed organisation of the ministry of education have the right to check the accuracy of decision by the headteacher on the award, amount and commencement of the scholarship provision to pupils.

Scholarship is provided to the pupil monthly, at:

  • 50 % of the amount of subsistence minimum, where the pupil’s grade point average is up to 2.0 including 2.0,
  • 35 % of the amount of subsistence minimum where the pupil’s grade point average is between 2.0 and 2.5, including 2.5,
  • 25 % of the amount of subsistence minimum where the pupil’s grade point average is between 2.5 and 3.5, including 3.5.


Private and Grant-Aided Education

Non-state schools (private and church) are also part of the school system (Act No. 245/2008 of the Law Code). Private schools are founded by natural persons or legal entities.

The sources of financing of private and church schools and school facilities include the resources from the state budget within the chapter of the Ministry of Education and the chapter of the Ministry of Interior, profits of the business activity, founders’ contributions, contributions and donors, as well as other resources, subject to a special regulation. The state ensures financing of private and church schools  (except for private and church basic arts schools) from the state budget, equally as in the case of public schools, with a proviso that private and church schools may be allocated funding for capital expenditure only for the procurement of movable assets. Resources are not allocated for reconstruction of school buildings and modernisation of school equipment.  On the other hand, private and church schools, basic arts schools and school facilities may be conveyed movable and real property of State on the basis of a contract on a loan, subject to a special regulation.


The Kindergarten

Until December 2004, private kindergartens were financed by the state equally as the public schools, using a normative per child.

From 1 January 2007, church and private kindergartens are financed by the municipality. The municipality also provides funding for the kindergartens founded by the municipality.


Legislation References

Act No. 564/2004 on budget determination of tax revenue from incomes of the territorial administration as amended by subsequent provision (Act of the National Council of the SR).
Act No. 596/2003 on state administration in education and school self-government and on change and supplements of some acts as amended by subsequent provisions (Act of the National Council of the SR).
Act No. 597/2003 on financing primary schools, secondary schools and school facilities as amended by subsequent provision (Act of the National Council of the SR).
Act No. 554/2008 on family allowances and on the change and supplement to some acts as amended by subsequent provision (Act of the National Council of the SR).
Act No. 245/2008 on education and training (Education Act) and on the change and supplement to some acts as amended by subsequent provisions (Act of the National Council of the SR).
Regulation of Government No. 630/2008 whereby the details of breakdown of finances from the national budget are set down for schools and school facilities as amended by subsequent provisions (Regulation of Government of the SR).
Act No. 201/2008 on substitute subsistence costs as amended by subsequent provision (Act of the National Council of the SR).
Regulation of Government No. 668/2004 on distribution of tax revenues of territorial autonomy as amended by subsequent provisions (Regulation of the SR Government).
Regulation of Government No. 339/2008 on providing help for promotion of milk and diary consumption at kindergartens, primary schools and secondary schools (Regulation of the SR Government).
Act No. 600/2003 of Law Code on child allowances and on the change and supplement to the Act No. 461/2003 of Law Code on social insurance as amended by subsequent provisions (Act of the National Council of the SR).