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Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Slovakia

Contents

Slovakia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Slovakia:Historical Development

Slovakia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Slovakia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Slovakia:Political and Economic Situation

Slovakia:Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Slovakia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Slovakia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Slovakia:Organisation of Private Education

Slovakia:National Qualifications Framework

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Slovakia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Funding in Education

Slovakia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Slovakia:Higher Education Funding

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Slovakia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Slovakia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Higher Education

Slovakia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Slovakia:First Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Bachelor

Slovakia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Slovakia:Second Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Slovakia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Slovakia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Slovakia:Main Providers

Slovakia:Main Types of Provision

Slovakia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Slovakia:Teachers and Education Staff

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Management and Other Education Staff

Slovakia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Slovakia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Quality Assurance

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Educational Support and Guidance

Slovakia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Slovakia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Slovakia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Slovakia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Higher Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Slovakia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Slovakia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:National Reforms in School Education

Slovakia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Slovakia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Slovakia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Slovakia:European Perspective

Slovakia:Legislation

Slovakia:Institutions

Slovakia:Glossary

According to the Labour Code, a pedagogical employee is a protected person.The employment may be concluded for a definite or indefinite period (tenure), and the teacher may work either full-time or part-time. The salary is dependent on the teaching load. The teacher may be employed by several employers as well (up to 48 hours per week). The working conditions are adjusted by the Labour Code and by work orders of individual types of schools or school facilities. 


Planning Policy

Strategic intentions in education and the creation of education policy are contained in the Millenium – the national programme of education and training in the Slovak Republic approved by the government of the Slovak Republic in 2001. Based on this document, the government of the Slovak Republic prepares a set of reforms and measures in the area of education and training in order to improve the situation in education every parliamentary period. The issues dealt with currently include teachers’ salary increase, curriculum changes, inclusion, development of vocational education and other.

Since the teacher recruitment is upon the headteacher of school, the latter may exercise directly influence upon the position of his own school in the market of educational services. Under decrease and reduction of the school network it is a significant moment influencing the competition between schools. 

The State school administration along with the ministry of education continuously analyse the situation on human resource conditions and work of school in connection with arrangement of the network of schools and school facilities (association, combination, dissolution) and demographic development in Slovakia. 


Entry to the Profession

The number of teachers and their posts in schools come from the performance and size of schools. The act on financing education introduced a normative principle.  It is based on number of pupils, classes or groups, number of weekly hours and teaching load. 

Only those applicants may be employed who meet the personal (integrity, medical fitness), educational and qualification requirements. 

The vacancies of headteachers and their deputies are filled by selection procedure. The way and procedure is similarly defined by the legislation. 


Induction    

“Induction of the fresh pedagogical employees” is a programme designed for the fresh teachers to help them overcome difficulties at applying their theoretical knowledge in practice. 

The induction training is organised by the school or school facility in cooperation with the respective workplace of the Methodology and Pedagogy Centre or the National Institute for Education, eventually, with educational institutions established by other central bodies. It is carried out according to a model project issued by the ministry of education in the first year upon recruitment of graduate from university or secondary school to start his/her employment as a teacher at school or school facility. 

The fresh pedagogical employee carries out educational activity under supervision of an introducing pedagogical employee. The fresh pedagogical employee is obliged to complete adaptation education and to successfully finish it within two years at the latest since inception of his working status.. It is finished by a final interview before the three-member examination board and an open hour. Chairman of the board is the headmaster who appoints the other members of the examination board. If the fresh teacher does not finish the adaptation education in the given term, the employer terminates his contract with the teacher. The adaptation education is free of cost. 

The introducing teacher is an experienced colleague of fresh teacher. The introducing pedagogical employee receives an extra pay for execution of the specialised activity. 


Professional Status

Decisive factors in the formation of the professional status include professional and pedagogical qualification, integrity and moral maturity, health fitness and state language proficiency. In creation of professional status the decisive personal qualities are professional and teaching qualifications, civil irreproachability and moral maturity. Teachers are ranked among the category of protected persons, they are public employees. In addition to teachers with tenure (indefinite length of position) there are also teachers employed for a definite period, namely in case of substituting during long absence.


Replacement Measures

An educational employee is obliged to substitute preliminary absent teacher on headteacher’s command and, if necessary, to take over the teaching activity or educational work over the extent of his/her teaching or educational work. This duty may be set in agreement with the Labour Code. Long-lasting absence is solved by employing teacher for substitution. 


Supporting Measures for Teachers

For increasing motivation and efficiency of teachers several measures were taken:

  • a trend of a faster rise of salaries is enforced,
  • adoption of the act on creation of loan fund for beginning teachers,
  • maintaining the tradition of moral remuneration of teachers on the occasion of Day of Teachers,
  • approval of  the Act on professional and pedagogical employees and supplementary decrees and regulations of the Government of the Slovak Republic listed in the legislative part of this chapter.


Salaries

Monthly salaries of teachers in regional education range from 428 to 862 € based on teachers’ qualification, attestation and years of practice (Government regulation no. 393/2014, supplement no.4). Teachers can also obtain financial bonuses, e.g. personal bonus for exceptional results and quality work, for being a class teacher, for further education and obtained credits, performance of some specialized activities, work in difficult conditions, as well as other bonuses. 

Remuneration of employees performing work in public interest – salary brackets. 

The scale of salary brackets contains 14 salary grades and each grade has 12 salary stages, which involves all educational staff (from pre-school establishments to higher education institutions, scientific and research workers including management). An employee is placed in the appropriate salary grade according to the most difficult work activities from the point of view of its complexity, degree of responsibility, physical demands, that he/she carries out, required qualification, and in a salary stage according to the number of service years in the area of the required working activities. 


Working Time and Holidays

The scope of the teaching duties of teachers and head teachers in regional education is governed by the Regulation of the Government which determines the scope of direct teaching activities and the direct educational activities of pedagogical employees. 

The weekly working time is made up of activities whereby the educational workers carry out the direct teaching and educational activities and of the time during which they carry out the other activities connected with their educational work. The other working activities connected with educational work are specified by the work order of the school or school facility. 

The basic workload for teachers is determined by lessons on a weekly basis. The basic weekly workload of kindergarten teacher is 28 hours, of primary school teacher, teacher of basic school of art 23 hours per week, of a secondary school teacher 22 hours per week, and of instructor of vocational training 21-35 hours per week, etc. Teaching duty of head teachers and their deputees depends on the number of classes.

 The length of teachers’ leaves is laid down by the Labour Code. The leave of teachers, headteachers and their deputies, instructors of vocational training and tutors, kindergarten teachers including their headteachers and deputies, is 8 weeks in a calendar year. If the tutor educates the young people under heavy conditions, at least in the extent of half of the weekly load set down, he/she has the right for extra leave lasting one week. 


Promotion, Advancement

Owing to the fact that under the act on performance of work in public interest the teachers are public employees, their procedure is limited by this law. The procedure is more or less automatic depending on the length of practice. 

The career diversification is given by the work position held. Teachers’ career possibilities are defined by the act on professional and pedagogical employees.


Transfers

Through higher education study teachers of all types of schools acquire qualification to teach the subjects of their specialisation only at a certain type and kind of school.

The transfer of teachers from one school to another is not controlled centrally; teachers are transferred on the basis of terms of employment and relevant regulations of the Labour Code, as well as their own decision. 


Dismissal

The dismissal of teacher from the category of educational staff is not regulated by a separate rule. In case of gross violation of working discipline the appropriate regulations of the Labour Code are followed. The teacher changes employment on his/her own decision.


Retirement and Pensions

The legal right of teachers and other employees for retirement is equal. The attainment of retirement age, however, is not a legal reason to terminate employment. Following an extensive social reform in the last 10 years, the retirment age for men and women has been in the process of gradual equilisation at 62.


Legislative References

Act No. 317/2009 on Professional and Pedagogical Employees and Professional Employees and on the change and supplement to some acts (Act of the National Council of the SR).
Act No. 553/2003 on remuneration of some employees at the work performance in public interest and on the change and supplement to some acts as amended by subsequent provision (Act of the National Council of the SR).
Government Regulation No 422/2009 establishing the scope of direct teaching and the educational activity of pedagogical staff, as amended (Regulation of Government of the SR).
Government Regulation No. 393/2014, establishing increased salary brackets of employees performing work in public interest as of the 1st January 2015 (Regulation of Government of the SR).