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Slovakia:Bachelor

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Overview Slovakia

Contents

Slovakia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Slovakia:Historical Development

Slovakia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Slovakia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Slovakia:Political and Economic Situation

Slovakia:Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Slovakia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Slovakia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Slovakia:Organisation of Private Education

Slovakia:National Qualifications Framework

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Slovakia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Slovakia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Slovakia:Funding in Education

Slovakia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Slovakia:Higher Education Funding

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Slovakia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Slovakia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Slovakia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Education

Slovakia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Slovakia:Higher Education

Slovakia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Slovakia:First Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Bachelor

Slovakia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Slovakia:Second Cycle Programmes

Slovakia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Slovakia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Slovakia:Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Slovakia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Slovakia:Main Providers

Slovakia:Main Types of Provision

Slovakia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Slovakia:Teachers and Education Staff

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Management and Other Education Staff

Slovakia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Slovakia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Slovakia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Quality Assurance

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Slovakia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Educational Support and Guidance

Slovakia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Slovakia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Slovakia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Slovakia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Slovakia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Higher Education

Slovakia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Slovakia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Slovakia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Slovakia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Slovakia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Slovakia:National Reforms in School Education

Slovakia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Slovakia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Slovakia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Slovakia:European Perspective

Slovakia:Legislation

Slovakia:Institutions

Slovakia:Glossary

Branches of Study

The first cycle study programmes – Bachelor study programmes are aimed at acquisition of theoretical knowledge and practical knowledge based on the recent state in the science or art and at management of its use in practice or in continuation in further higher education study. Bachelor study programme graduates achieve the higher education of the first level and receive academic degree of Bachelor (abbr. “Bc.”). Duration of the study is 3 – 4 years. Depending on the standard length of study it is necessary to get 180 up to 240 credits.

Higher education institution prepares for each study programme a recommended study plan. In case of the study according to the recommended study plan the student is able to complete the study programme regularly at the standard length of study.

The language of instruction is the Slovak language. Some subjects are offered in foreign languages (most often in the English language). The language of instruction is stated in the information sheet of each subject. Higher education in the Slovak Republic also offers study in the Hungarian language – the language of the 10% Hungarian national minority in the Slovak Republic.


Admission Requirements

Every citizen has the right to study at a higher education institution in the selected branch of study programme provided he fulfils the basic admission conditions for study and further conditions specified by higher education institutions. The basic condition for the admission to Bachelor study is graduation from complete secondary education or complete secondary vocational education (the education completed by the secondary school-leaving examination).

Higher education institution can admit applicants of accredited study programme which are in the list of study programmes.

The admission examinations are organised directly by a faculty, which determine by themselves the admission requirement in such a way as to admit to the study only the candidates with necessary abilities and prerequisites. The faculty or higher education institution shall announce the framework content and way of evaluation of results of admission examination. The other conditions must not go beyond the content of knowledge offered by the secondary education with school-leaving certificate in the light of the education law. The admission examination is held mostly in written form. Some schools also include oral examinations or interviews, too, for selected programmes. Their aim is to evaluate the overall prerequisites for the study programme chosen, language skills, etc.  The talent or practical examination is taken by candidates of the teacher training for the first grade of primary school, or candidates of teacher training for academic subjects in combination with physical education, music education and art education, at the study programmes of sports, journalism, architecture and at all programmes of artistic orientation. The dean of faculty decides on the applicant admission in case of appeal, the rector of higher education institutions makes the final decision on the student admission. The result of admission examination is usually issued on the day of performance, eventually, on the second day. Almost all faculties, however, publicize the results on their Internet pages. A written statement on admission or non-admission is delivered to the student within 30 days.

The applicant with a health disorder is determined upon his request the form of admission examination and the way of its completion with a view to his health disability. Each higher education institution has a tutor for work with these students.

The applicant, who successfully passes the admission exams, becomes the student of higher education institution. The conditions for admission of foreigners to the study at higher education institution are the same like for the citizens of the Slovak Republic.

In case of the study programmes in the healthcare branches the admission to external forms of the study is restricted by the condition that the previous education of the applicant is from selected healthcare fields of study.

As regards the State higher education institutions the procedure may vary with respect to limitations ensuing from their status. Number of admissions is determined in some cases by the respective ministry, eventually, the preference is given to those who are in employment relationship in the given sector.

Concerning military higher education institutions the study of civil servants of the Bachelor study programmes is not possible.


Curriculum

The higher education institutions and their faculties are autonomous in the study programme creation. The legal regulations govern some basic requirements for study programmes, such as the standard student load (60 credits per academic year), limitations to the standard length of study, or division of subjects into compulsory, optional and elective. At the same time, the regular completion of the study is conditional upon the defence of a bachelor thesis.

The student pursues the study programme according to the study plan that he himself compiles. All students of the study programme must complete all compulsory subjects, the required part of compulsory optional subjects and the remaining number of credits is achieved from elective subjects.


Teaching Methods 

The content and methods of teaching within the framework of individual subjects are in full competence of universities and faculties in agreement with fundamental rights and freedoms of higher education institutions.

In higher education institutions the choice of teaching methods is determined by the type of teaching and specificities required from individual subjects. Lectures, seminars, proseminars (combined form of teaching made up of lectures and seminars), exercises, courses, consultations, excursions, practice teaching, seminar papers are the main forms of teaching. In technical and science subjects it is a laboratory work. As a part of lectures, the dialogue methods are used combined with computer technology and other teaching aids.

Higher education institutions are autonomous in selection of textbooks or educational software as well as in their development. In case that a university teacher writes a university textbook this output is partially considered at determination of a subsidy for the given higher education institution. A special system of support at development of teaching materials, or university textbooks at the central level, does not exist. 


Progression of Students

Each student has the right to apply for study at another faculty or higher education institution, or abroad. In higher education institutions it is possible to transfer from one branch of study to another that are set up in study rules of faculties and universities, eventually, the student may complete his study at another university than that where he initially started.

A student may enrol in one subject at most two times during his study. In case that he fails to pass the subject for the second time, he is expelled from the study. The pace of study and order of subjects are determined by the student himself. The total period of study cannot be longer though than two academic years compared to standard length of study of the given study programme.

The study order of a higher education institution and the study programme rules determine the number of credits which the students must achieve to be able to progress to the next part of study. The parts of study are usually expressed by academic years, that means, at the beginning or at the end of the academic year it is assessed if the student fulfils the conditions for continuing the studies  – to be expressed as a rule by minimum number of the credits that should be achieved during the year.


Employability

At present, no special tools are applied for placement of graduates of Bachelor study programmes at the labour market. The hitherto practice and possibilities of admission to the next cycle of education cause that a prevailing part of graduates of the Bachelor study programme continue in the further higher education studies.

Based on the dialogue between the higher education institution and the practice (automotive industry in particular), a modification of bachelor study programmes in some fields of study occurs in relation to the practical needs and the increase of employability of the bachelor degree graduates. Bachelor degree is sufficient for performance of certain healthcare professions and such graduates can be directly employed in practice (e.g. midwives, nurses). 

Higher education institutions provide traineeship or practice for their students in many bachelor study programmes. Teaching practice is a compulsory and integral part of educational programmes for teachers; it has to be taken in contractual schools that provide pre-primary, primary and secondary education. 


Students Assessment

Details on evaluation of student performances during his study are set up in study rules of universities and faculties. Procedures of evaluation of students vary.
The organisation of all levels and forms of higher education study is based on the credit system. The credit system of study enables by credits to evaluate the student’s load connected with the completion of the units of study programme in agreement with the rules contained in the study programme. The standard load is expressed by the number of credits as follows: 60 for academic year, 30 credits for semester and 20 credits for trimester.

The evaluation of the student results within the framework of the subject study is carried out, in particular, by

  • continuous check up of the study results during the teaching part of the given period of study (examination questions, written tests, tasks for individual work, papers, coursework, etc.),
  • examination for the given period of study.

The subject completion is evaluated by a mark. A mark expresses the quality of acquisition of knowledge or skills in agreement with the aim of the subject. The result of evaluation is recorded in study book (index).

Evaluation by a mark is carried out according to the system of grading composed of six grades:

  • A – excellent = 1
  • B – very good = 1,5
  • C – good = 2
  • D – satisfactory = 2,5
  • E – sufficient = 3
  • FX – fail = 4

The student shall obtain credits for the subject if his/her result were assessed by any of the classification grades from A to E. For evaluation of overall study records of the student in a defined period the use is made of course weighted average. It is counted in such a way that the products of number of credits and numerical assessment in the period assessed shall be summed up and the result shall be divided by total number of credits registered by the student for the given period.

In case of healthcare study programmes the students keep books of records on clinical practice for recording individual operations they did during practicing in clinical workplace.

A condition for regular completion of studies is the State examination.  In addition to the defence of a final (bachelor) thesis, there are also the other State examinations prescribed. The State examination is usually commissional verification of student’s knowledge and comprehension of the completed subjects in coherences.


Certification

The graduates of Bachelor’s study are issued diplomas indicating the study branches, study programmes, academic degree, identification of a higher education institution and faculty and of a graduate (name, surname, date of birth), a certificate on the state examination and Diploma Supplement. The Diploma Supplement contains detailed information on completed study and the system of higher education in the SR. The higher education institutions award the academic degree of Bachelor (Bc.) to the graduates of Bachelor’s study.

In case of academic recognition of documents on education (with the purpose of continuing the studies) the recognition of study in other higher education institution abroad falls within the competence of the higher education institution. Concerning the recognition of education from abroad for professional purposes the recognition of the document on education falls as a rule within the competence of the ministry of education. The documents issued in the SR, except for foreign higher education institutions, are valid in the SR without further recognition.


Legislation References

Act No. 131/2002 on higher education and on the change and supplement to some acts as amended by subsequent provision (fully wording in the Act No. 175/2008) (Act of the National Council of SR).