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Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

A Doctoral Diploma is the highest academic degree awarded in all domains after 3-4 (by exception even 5) years of study and original research. It follows the first academic degree (or master's degree) and requires the passing of examinations and the submission of an original thesis. The holder of a doctoral diploma is granted the Ph.D. title in the respective field of science or arts.

According the Education Law no 1/2011, the PhD represents the third cycle of higher education and allows for a qualification of level 8 within EQF/CEC and within the National Qualification Framework. It takes place based on a Code of PhD Education, approved by government decision.
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Organisation of doctoral studies

According to the legislation, the doctoral studies are organised in fundamental domains of sciences and arts. In sciences the doctoral studies are organised in the following domains: exact sciences, natural sciences, humanistic sciences, social and political sciences, sciences of education, economy sciences, juridical sciences, agriculture and forestry sciences, medical sciences, architecture and urbanism, engineering sciences, theology and military sciences. In arts the doctoral studies are organised in the following domains: visual arts, music, theatre, cinematography, ballet and physical education and sport. Doctoral studies are finalised with a doctoral thesis and are recognised through a diploma de doctor.

According the Education Law no 1/2011, the PhD programmes can normally be organised as full-time programmes and, by exception, as part-time programmes. 

The doctoral studies comprise the following: 

  • High general training within a doctoral school, usually in the form of lectures and workshops;
  • A preparation plan determined by the doctoral candidate and his/her supervisor,and, subsequently approved by the council of the department, respectively by the scientific council of the research institute.
  • Preparation and elaboration of the doctoral thesis. The title and the subject of the thesis are approved by the council of the department, respectively by the scientific council of the research institute; the student is allowed to change the subject once.
  • Public presentation of the doctoral thesis.

The structure of the training programme consists of theoretical and practical activities for the specific field of the doctoral studies.

According the Education Law no 1/2011, the PhD educational programs may be organized by accredited or temporarily authorized Doctorate Organizing Universities. Doctorate Organizing Universities may be organized by consortiums or partnerships, or by consortiums or partnerships legally concluded between a university or a university consortium and research and development entities. Universities, or partnerships with consortiums organizing one or several accredited or temporarily approved Doctorate Organizing Universities represent Doctorate Organizing Universities (IOSUD), recognized as such by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, based on the accreditation or temporary authorization and periodic evaluation.

The Romanian Academy may establish the Doctorate Organizing School of the Romanian Academy, in compliance with the provisions of this law on the authorization, accreditation and operation as higher educational institution. The Doctorate Organizing School of the Romanian Academy may be IOSUD and may organize Ph.D. degree programmes.

Each Doctorate Organizing School (or simply Doctoral School) is assessed individually, for each area, for accreditation. The assessment of the Doctorate Organizing School is made according to its performance and  the institutional capacity of IOSUD to which the Doctorate Organizing School belongs. The assessment of the Doctorate Organizing Schools is made by ARACIS or by another national or foreign agency for academic quality assurance, based on the CNCS reports as to the quality of the research and on the CNATDCU reports on the quality of the human resources. The criteria system and the assessment methodology are set by order of the Ministry of Education and Scientific Research, based on joint proposals of ARACIS, CNCS and CNATDCU. Each Doctorate Organizing School is assessed periodically, every 5 years.

According the Education Law no 1/2011, PhD programmes are of two types:

  • scientific PhD, which has as final result the production of original scientific knowledge, relevant at international level, based on scientific methods. The scientific PhD is an essential condition for a career as a researcher or professor in the higher education system;
  • professional PhD, in arts and sports, which has as final result the production of original scientific knowledge based on scientific methods and systematic reflection, on artistic creation or on sports performance at national and international high level and which may represent a basis for the professional career in higher education and research in arts and sports.

The curriculum and the research program are decided by the Ph.D. tutore/supervisor and by the doctoral school.

Admission Requirements

According to the Education Law no 1/2011, the Ministry of Education and Scientific Researchyearly develops a  framework methodology for the organisation of the admission in the Romanian public and private educational institutions on an annual basis.Each higher educational institution elaborates and applies its own regulations for the organization of the educational programmes it provides.

Any candidate from the member states of the European Union, from the European Economic Space and from the Swiss Confederation may take the admission exam for a public, private or confessional higher education for each educational cycle and programme, in the same conditions provided by law for  Romanian citizens, including as far as the tuition is concerned.

According to the legal provisions in force higher education institutions may charge candidates with registration fees for the organisation and execution of the admission, in the quantum approved by each university senate. In their own methodologies, university senates may decide upon fee exemption or reduction.

A person may benefit from financing from the budget for a single graduation programme, for a single master’s degree programme, and for a singer Ph.D. degree programme.

Only the graduates of the master’s degree programs or equivalent studies have the right to participate to the admission to PhD programs.

Status of Doctoral Students/ Candidates

The person admitted to a bachelor, master or PhD educational programme is a student, doctoral student respectively, during their entire registration in the programme in question, from the registration moment and to the finalization of their studies, less the periods when their studies are interrupted.

Supervision Arrangements

In the context of the university mobility policies, IOSUD may employ, on a contractual basis, specialists from abroad who have the legal right to be tutors.

The competence of PhD mentor/tutor/supervisor is granted by order of the Minister of Education and Scientific Research, at the proposal, of CNATDCU for granting the competence certificate in compliance with the standards and proce dures developed by the Ministry of Education and Scientific Research. These standards are set in accordance with the evaluation criteria relevant at international level, proposed by CNATDCU and approved by order of the Minister of Education and Scientific Research. The minimal standards for the acceptance of the competence certificate file by the CNATDCU are not dependent upon the didactic position and are identical to the standards for granting the professor title.

In order to supervise PhD studies, the teaching and research staff who have obtained such right must conclude a labour contract with a IOSUD or another IOSUD-member institution and must be a member of a PhD organizing school. The competent teaching and research staff and the scientific researchers who have the competence to become Ph.D tutors become PhD tutors after they have beenauthorized in this respect.

Employability

According the Education Law no 1/2011, PhD students are employed by IOSUD or by any of the IOSUD members as research assistants or assistant professors, on a definite period.

During their entire activity, the student attending full-time programmes benefit from the acknowledgement of their study years as specialised work experience and also from free medical care, without paying the contribution to the social insurance, unemployment, health and work accident and occupational diseases insurances.

The PhD student may perform teaching activities, in compliance with the education services agreement, in the limit of 4-6 normal classes/week. The teaching activities that exceed this level will be paid according to the legislation in force, falling under the Labour Code, and requiring the observance of the rights and obligations of an employee and the payment of contributions due by law to the social insurance, unemployment, health and work accident and occupational diseases insurances.

According to the pension law, the PhD education is an assimilated period, and is taken into consideration when deciding the contribution rate, except for the case in which the  student registers revenues for which, during this time, he/she is paying contributions to the social insurances.

Assessment

The examinations are performed by an Examination Commission. Students can advance in their education and training programme if obtaining the minimum mark of “good” in examinations and a pass qualification for the research papers/creative works. If they fail one examination or if one research paper is not accepted, they may sit for the examination once more, or may defend their research paper/creative work again.

Certification

The PhD thesis is drafted in compliance with the requirements decided by the IOSUD in its PhD regulation and in compliance with the regulations of the national Code for the PhD University Studies.

Doctoral studies are finalised through a thesis publicly defended and evaluated by a commission of specialists approved by the university senate. The commission comprises a chair, the Director of the doctoral programme and three official reviewers, specialists with outstanding scientific activity holding a diploma de doctor in the domain (professors, lecturers, academicians, scientific researchers of rank I – from the country or abroad) of which at least two do not work in the respective IOD. The members of the commission produce review papers containing general and analytical assessment remarks, and their conclusion on the academic value of the thesis, expressing their agreement or disagreement upon the awarding of the diploma de doctor.

The PhD thesis is defended in a public meeting before the PhD commission, after the positive evaluation of all the referees. The defence of the PhD thesis may take place in the presence of at least 4 of the 5 members of the commission, with the mandatory participation of the commission’s president and PhD mentor. The public defence must include a session of questions by the members of the PhD commission and the public.

Based on the public presentation of the PhD thesis and of the official referees’ reports, the PhD commission evaluates and deliberates upon the grade that the thesis receives. The grades are: „Excellent”, “Very good”, “Good”, “Satisfactory” and “Unsatisfactory”. “Excellent” is usually granted for maximum 15% of the candidates who acquire the PhD title in a certain IOSUD, in the course of an academic year.

If the PhD student has observed the requirements provided in the scientific research programme and the grade of the PhD thesis is “Very good”, “Good” or “Satisfactory” the PhD commission proposes to award the PhD title, proposal that is submitted to CNATDCU for validation. Following the evaluation of the file, CNATDCU, proposes to the Minister of Education and Scientific Research to grant or to not to grant the PhD title.

If the grade is “Unsatisfactory”, the PhD commission will identify the content elements that must be remade or completed from the thesis and will request a new public defence. The second defence of the PhD thesis takes place before the same PhD commission, as in the case of the first defence. If, following the second public defence, the PhD thesis is graded “Unsatisfactory”, the PhD title is not granted, and the student shall be expelled.

The PhD title is granted by an order of the Minister of National Education and Scientific Research, after the validation of the thesis by CNATDCU.

Organisational Variation

According the Education Law no 1/2011, the PhD education may take place under a co-tutorship, in which case a studentcarries out his/her activity under the simultaneous guidance of a tutor in Romania and another one in a different country, or a under the guidance of two tutors from different universities in Romania, based on a written agreement between the institutions involved. PhD education under a cotutorship may also be organised if the PhD mentors are from the same IOSUD, but are specialised in different fields of study, or if one of the PhD mentors has reached the retirement age, in compliance with the university Charter.