This page was last modified on 31 December 2013, at 15:04.

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

For all vocational education and training (VET), the curriculum design process, at national level, includes the following stages:  

  • Development of the Vocational Training Standards  (VTS) by initiators, under the coordination of the National Centre for the Development of Vocational Education and Training (NCDVET), based on identified needs for professional qualifications;
  • Validation of the Vocational Training Standards by Sector Committees;
  • Development of the Framework Education Plan, based on VTS and the National Curriculum, by NCDVET in cooperation with the Ministry of National Education;
  • Development of the curriculum for the curricular area Technologies, under the coordination of NCDVET, based on validated Vocational Training Standards;
  • Advice on the curriculum by the National Specialised Commissions of the Ministry of National Education;  
  • Approval of the curriculum by the Ministry of National Education.

The curricular reform in vocational education and training,  initiated in the mid-90s  with support from PHARE TVET projects and sustained, since 2010, by projects of the European Social Fund (ESF), enabled:  the review  of  Vocational Training Standards and the curriculum, based on learning outcomes, for a significant number of qualifications, the development of learning material appropriate to the specificity  of applied learning, the efficient implementation of information and communication technologies in the education process, the focus of learning on students, the application of the integration principle for students with special educational needs. 

Specialisation of studies

With regard to the specialisation of studies, the upper cycle of vocational education and training (upper cycle of the technological high-school) is organised in 3 profiles which, in their turn, bring together vocational training areas, as follows:

  • Technical profile, which includes the areas: Mechanics, Industrial chemistry,  Constructions, Installations and public works,  Electronics and automation, Electrical, Electro-mechanics, Textile and leather industry, Construction materials, Media production, Manufacturing of wood products, Printing techniques;
  • Services profile, which includes the areas: Tourism and food, Commerce, Economic, Aesthetics and hygiene of human body;
  • Natural resources and environment protection profile, which includes the areas: Agriculture, Food industry, Environment protection, Forestry. 

Curriculum, Subjects, Number of Hours

The National Curriculum is structured across 7 curricular areas: Language and Communication, Mathematics and Science, Man and Society, Arts, Physical Education and Sports, Counselling and Guidance, Technologies.

The curriculum has the following components:

  • Core Curriculum (CC) which includes the subjects/modules that are common to a profile/vocational training area, and the number of hours allocated to them, and is a part of the National Curriculum;
  • Differentiated Curriculum (DC) which includes modules that are specific to a professional qualification, and is a part of the National Curriculum;
  • Locally Developed Curriculum (LDC) which is the provision specific to every school and is intended to adapt students’ training to the demands of the local labour market. LDC is proposed and developed by every school, after a consultation with its partner companies. The design process for LDC includes the following stages: (i) Identification of vocational training needs at local level; (ii) Development of the LDC in compliance with the needs identified at local level; (iii) Advice on LDC by the Administration Council of the school and by the Local Committee for the Development of Social Partnership; (iv) Approval of LDC by the School Inspectorate.

In VET, the curriculum for the Technologies curricular area is organised in modules and is designed based on the Vocational Training Standards. This means that the vocational education and training route is designed based on the competence units of the Vocational Training Standards (VTS). Usually, every unit of general and specialised technical competences in VTS has a corresponding module in the curriculum.

The key competence units are obligatory components of every qualification in VET. Their role is to guide students’ training towards transferable learning acquisitions, important both for their social integration, and for the labour market, and they are defined in accordance with the European Reference Framework of Key Competences for Lifelong Learning. For level 3 qualifications, acquired at the completion of the upper cycle of the technological high-school, the key competences are as follows: Communication in a foreign language, Management of inter-personal relations, Computer use and processing of information, Communication, Development of a professional career, Processing numerical data, Critical thinking and problem solving, Starting up a business.

In the curriculum design process, key competences can be :

  • aggregated in a module with general or specific technical competences
  • integrated into general subjects
  • by themselves, as separate modules.

In order to measure the learning outcomes after a training module, for every competence unit of VTS a number of credits is allocated, based on the following criteria:

  • the complexity of competences that make the competence unit
  • the share of the competence unit in the structure of the qualification
  • the period of time necessary to learn the competences
  • the workload necessary to learn the competences.

The upper cycle of the technological high-school is unitarily built, with a number of 30 credits and a total number of 2159/ 2190 hours (depending on qualification), out of which 1152/ 1186 hours (approximately 54%) are allocated to general subjects and 1007/ 1004  hours (approximately 46%) to specialised training. Out of the hours allocated to specialised training, 38 % are allocated to theoretical training and 62% are allocated to practical training in the technology laboratory and practical instruction.

Teaching Methods and Materials

The teaching methods applied in vocational education and training are chosen so as to lead to the attainment of the goals set for the educational level, and of the objectives proposed for every module  and, especially, to correspond to the age and individual student particularities. Teachers are fully responsible for choosing methods, while considering the structure of their class, the teaching aids available in their school and following the methodological guidance provided in the National Curriculum and the material published for teachers.

Throughout vocational education and training, every module of the Education Plan of the Technologies Curricular Area (specialised modules)  is taught by one or more teachers (generally, in cases where a specialised module includes both theoretic lessons and lessons in the technology laboratory  or practical instruction). During lessons, the teacher is fully responsible for the class management. Consequently, teachers choose independently the organisation of activities with all students (frontal activities), in groups or individually (differentiated activities) – based on the specific objectives of the lesson and the students’ level.

Teaching-learning activities in separate groups with at least 10 students can be organised for laboratory lessons and practical instruction and/or extracurricular activities. With regard to the teaching methods, the following general mentions can be considered:

  • Methods based on oral communication can be classified in methods based on presentation (story telling, description, explanation etc.) and methods based on conversation (conversation, heuristic conversation, problem raising etc.).
  • Teachers also use learning and exploration methods based on discovery: direct exploration of objects and phenomena (systematic and independent observations, experiments, practical activities etc.) and indirect exploration (problem solving, demonstration through images, films etc.);
  • The system promotes the use of interactive student-centred methods based on children’s voluntary action (exercises, practical activities etc.) and simulated action (educational games, learning through dramatization etc.);
  • Practical training is an obligatory activity in vocational education and training and is delivered by teachers - engineers and/or foremen in laboratories and workshops, as well as by tutors - staff appointed by employers for students’ practical training in companies.

At the end of every lesson, teachers usually define the homework for the next lesson. The homework asks students to solve exercises, write essays or carry out activities etc., selected from textbooks or other publications (text collections, student’s notebook, collections of exercises and problems etc.). In some cases, students are also asked to take some practical activities as homework – such as measurements, observations, small practical projects etc.

At the beginning of every lesson, teachers usually check how students did their homework and, if necessary, help students complete it offering additional explanations. As a general rule, the Ministry of National Education recommends that when determining the time necessary for doing homework, teachers should consider young people’s need for socialisation and sports and recreational activities.

The Education Law stipulates that only textbooks approved by the Ministry of National Education can be used in classroom. For some of the specialised modules taught in vocational education and training there are one or more alternative textbooks approved by the Ministry of National Education for every grade. Based on students’ level, every teacher chooses and recommends at the beginning of the school year the textbook for every specialised module.

The teaching aids used in vocational education and training depend on the educational level and the specialised module. Printed material can be procured from the school library or can be recommended by teachers and bought by students. An important number of publications are available for supporting teachers: publications for general and specific teacher training, methodological material, textbooks for teachers, auxiliary material etc.