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Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

According to the Education Law (Law 84/1995, republished, subsequently modified and completed), education in Romania pursues the free, integral and harmonious development of the human individuality, and the development of the autonomous and creative personality.

The upper secondary educational offers to all graduates of second phase of the lower secondary level of high school or arts and trades school the possibility to specialise in various theoretical, vocational and specific (military, theological, sports, arts and pedagogical) domains in order to prepare for the labour market and/or to continue their education in the subsequent education levels. The graduates of Arts and Trades Schools, in order to participate in upper secondary education (upper cycle of Liceu) have to attend the completion year and obtain the level 2 of certification of vocational skills.

In accordance with the general finalities of education, the following general objectives are set for the upper cycle of Liceu:

  • To develop the capacity, to formulate and solve problems based on relating knowledge from different domains;
  • To valorise one own experiences in order to achieve an optimal vocational guidance towards the labour market and/or post-secondary education (non-tertiary or tertiary);
  • To develop the capacity to actively integrate in various social-cultural groups: family, vocational environment, friends, etc.;
  • To develop essential functional competences for social success: communication, critical thinking, decision-making, processing and contextual use of complex information;
  • To cultivate the expressivity and sensitivity in order to obtain personal fulfilment and to promote a quality life;
  • To develop the moral autonomy.

The Completion year is a passageway for the graduates of scoala de arte si meserii (Arts and trades school), in order to continue their education within the upper cycle of liceu  with technical profile. The Completion year gives to the pupils the opportunity to continue their general education and to acquire at the same time vocational competences. More specifically, VET is designed as a route with two major learning outcomes: general education (ensuring for the pupils the possibility to continue their education), and vocational training (ensuring for the pupils the possibility to acquire a vocational qualification). Consequently, besides the general finalities of education as established by the law, the following specific finalities are envisaged for VET:

  • To facilitate the insertion of the youngsters into the active life (transition from school to work);
  • To increase the work productivity and the economic development of the country;
  • To provide workers capable to understand technological evolution and to contribute to the adaptation of the technological structures to the changes taking place in the socio-economic environment;
  • To promote democracy in enterprises;
  • To reduce social tensions;
  • To provide youngsters the necessary competences in order to organise entrepreneurial activities on their own initiative, according to the provisions of the law;
  • To ensure mobility and flexibility on the labour market and the conditions necessary for vocational re-conversion following changes of the labour market requirements.

Specialisation of studies

Regarding the specialisation of studies, the structure of the upper secondary education is as follows:

  • The Completion year is organised based on the vocational qualifications provided (levels and specialisations);
  • Liceu – upper cycle is provided in three branches of study – general, TVET and specific education and training (military, theological, sports, arts and pedagogical) – further divided into educational profiles and specialisations.

Curriculum, Subjects, Number of Hours

The upper cycle of high school (grades 9 – 12/13) covers upper secondary education entirely and is a form of post-compulsory education. The upper cycle of high school is organised in three paths: general, aptitude-based and technological; the general and aptitude-based paths have different profiles and specialisations, while the technological path is organised based on vocational qualifications.

The curricular offer for the upper cycle of high school – including framework plans, curricula and textbooks – has three components:

  • core curriculum,
  • differentiated curriculum
  • the school-based curriculum – for the general and aptitude-based paths, and the locally developed curriculum – for the technological path, respectively.

The three components are highly dependent on the path, profile and specialisation/vocational qualification. Their essential characteristic is the reduction in the weight of the central educational offer (represented by the core curriculum and the differentiated curriculum) and an increase in the weight of the school-based curriculum/locally developed curriculum. This ensures the premises for students’ co-participation in the establishment of their own training route and for more responsibility from schools in the management of the curricular offer, in relation with locally identified educational needs.

When the language of instruction is Romanian, students belonging to national minorities can study, upon request, their mother tongue (language and literature), with the same number of hours and the same position in the framework plan as for the subject Romanian language and literature.

When instruction is delivered in one of the national minority languages, the framework plan of the path, profile and specialisation/training field also includes, in the curricular area Language and Communication, the subject mother tongue language and literature, with the same number of hours and the same position as for the subject Romanian language and literature.

From the 2009/2010 school year, new framework plans are applied in the upper cycle of high school. <span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1327593386653_109" />

For the general and aptitude-based paths, according to the Order of the Education Minister 3410/2009, the core curriculum (CC) and the differentiated curriculum (DC) include the number of hours allocated to all compulsory subjects for an area of specialisation.

The core curriculum is established centrally and includes subjects, and their corresponding number of hours, that are common to all specialisations within a profile. The core curriculum is aimed at the further development of some key competences – acquired during compulsory education and relevant to students’ training route –, as well as the development of some specific competences, common to all the specialisations of a profile.

The differentiated curriculum is established centrally and includes subjects, and their corresponding number of hours, that are specific to every specialisation within a profile. The differentiated curriculum is mainly aimed at the development of specific competences necessary for an area of specialisation. Students thus benefit from the basics of diversified training, useful to the continuation of their studies and their social and professional integration later on.  

The general competences, the specific competences and contents associated with them, as well as the values and attitudes pursued in the curriculum for the upper cycle of high school are set out in the curricula. The general competences are defined for each subject; they are very general and complex, and guide learning towards students’ final acquisitions. The specific competences correlated with content units are built throughout a year of study and they derive from general competences, being steps in their development. The learning contents are means for the development of competences; the content units are presented in a non-obligatory order. In the curriculum design endeavour, the concept of competence is given the meaning of ‘organiser’, and in relation with it learning goals are established, specific contents are selected and teaching-learning-assessment strategies are organised. The values and attitudes are presented in an explicit list and their role is to emphasise the affective-attitudinal and moral dimension of learning, from the perspective of the specific contribution of subjects to the achievement of education goals. Curricula also include methodological suggestions; their role is to guide learning design and teaching-learning-assessment activities in accordance with the particularities of a class of students.

The structure of the local curricular offer, found in the school-based curriculum, is set based on a consultation with parents, students and other educational partners, with the condition that they are approved by the teachers’ council and the administration council of each school. The school-based curriculum may include the following types of optional subjects:

  • advanced study optional subject – derived from any of the subjects in the core curriculum and/or the differentiated curriculum, aimed at a more in depth study of the specific competences of that particular subject through new content units other than those set out in the curriculum for the specialisation in question;
  • extension optional subject – derived from any of the subjects in the core curriculum and/or in the differentiated curriculum, aimed at the extension of the general competences of that particular subject through new specific competences and new contents, correlated with those in the  central offer of the specialisation in question;
  • new optional subject – which introduces a new object of study in a particular curricular area, other than those in the central offer of the specialisation, and develops new specific competences and new contents, other than those set out in the curricula for subjects included in the framework plan;
  • integrated optional subject – which introduces a new subject as an object of study, structured around an integrating theme for one or more curricular areas, and develops new specific competences – complex, integrative – and new contents – interdisciplinary.

Curricula for optional subjects can be developed locally, and in this case they need to be endorsed by a specialist inspector from the County/Bucharest School Inspectorate, or they can be taken from the central offer for school-based curriculum approved by Order of the Minister of Education, Research, Youth and Sports. The central offer for school-based curriculum promotes examples of good practice, curricula piloted nationally through various national and international educational programmes.

In the upper cycle of high school, the central curriculum offer may include the intensive study of computer science or the study of a foreign language in classes with intensive or bilingual programme, if the school has the necessary human and material resources.

Teaching Methods and Materials

The teaching methods applied in secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education are carefully chosen so as to meet the finalities and the educational objectives set for the education levels and most of all, the pupils’ age and individual particularities. The teacher is fully responsible for choosing the methods, taking the structure of the class into consideration, the teaching aids available in the school and following the methodological guidelines provided by the National Curriculum and the teachers’ guides for each subject.

During secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education a teacher teaches each subject. According to the principle of continuity, usually the same teacher works with a given class throughout all the study years during which the respective subject is studied within a given educational cycle/level.

During a given lesson, the class management is entirely the responsibility of the teacher. In consequence, teachers can decide per se to organise the activities with all the pupils (frontal activities), in smaller groups or individually (differentiated activities) – depending on the specific objectives of the lesson and the level of the pupils. Separated group teaching-learning activities, with groups comprising at least 10 pupils, can be organised in one of the following situations: Activities organised within the school-based curriculum and/or extra-curricular activities; Intensive study of a foreign language; Study of the foreign language for bilingual classes; Informatics intensive study; Certain practical training (T/VET).

Individualised teaching-learning activities can be organised only during after-school activities and parents usually support the necessary costs.

Regarding the teaching methods, the following general remarks can be taken into consideration:

  • The oral communication methods utilized can be classified as expository methods (description, explanation, etc.) and conversational methods (conversation, heuristic conversation, questioning on a special subject, etc.).
  • Teachers also use exploratory learning methods: direct exploration of objects and phenomena (systematic and independent observation, experiments, practical work, etc.) and indirect exploration (problem solving, demonstration through pictures, films, etc.);
  • The system promoted the use of interactive methods focused on the each individual and based on the pupils’ direct voluntary action (exercises, practical work, etc.) and simulated action (didactic games, learning through dramatisation, etc.);
  • Practical training is a compulsory activity carried on within T/VET and is ensured by engineer-teachers and/or foremen in laboratories and workshops, as well as by tutors (staff designated by the employers for the practical training of the pupils in the enterprise).

At the end of each lesson, teachers usually assign the homework for the next class. The homework requests solving exercises and realising essays, activities, etc. chosen either from the textbooks or from other printed teaching aids (pupils’ textbooks, texts anthologies, problems and exercises collections, etc.). In some cases pupils are also requested to perform as their homework specific practical activities – like measurements, observations, small practical projects, etc. At the beginning of each lesson teachers usually check with the pupils the homework and, as the case may be, help them in accomplishing it, giving supplementary explanations. As a general rule, the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports  recommends that time dedicated for homework should take into consideration the need of the youngsters to socialise and perform sports and other leisure activities.

In the upper cycle of high school, only textbooks and auxiliary materials that have been approved by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports can be used in the classroom. For most of the subjects, there are three or more alternative textbooks, approved for each year of study. Based on the characteristics of their classes, teachers choose the textbook for their subject at the beginning of the school year.