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Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

According to the Education Law (Law 84/1995, republished, subsequently modified and completed), education in Romania pursues the free, integral and harmonious development of the human individuality, and the development of the autonomous and creative personality.

The general objectives set for gimnaziu are as follows:

  • To ensure for all pupils an educational standard comparable to the European one;
  • To develop the capacity to communicate efficiently in real situations using Romanian language, mother tongue, foreign languages and various speciality languages;
  • To develop the capacity to adapt to and integrate into the community;
  • To develop positive attitudes in relation to the social environment: tolerance, responsibility, solidarity, etc.;
  • To ensure an optimal educational and vocational guidance according to the aspirations and aptitudes of the pupils;
  • To develop the capacities and motivations necessary for continuing learning in the conditions of a changing society.

The second phase of the lower secondary level of Liceu (grades IX-X), represents one of two alternatives for the lower sencodary educational level and envisages the following general objectives:

  • To accoplish the development for each pupil of the key-competences required by the knowledge society;
  • To furter enable and reinforce pupils training for lifelong learning and;
  • To facilitate the educational and vocational guidance of the pupils through development of certain specific competences (pre-specialisation within the high school lower cycle and vocational qualification within the "arts and trades school").

The general objectives set for şcoala de arte şi meserii (Arts and trades school) are the same with general objectives set for liceu – lower secondary level. Additional, vocational education and training offered by şcoala de arte şi meserii (Arts and trades school) has to ensure the acquisition of the vocational competences required by the specialisation.

Specialisation of studies

Regarding the specialisation of studies, the structure of the lower secondary educationis as follows:

  • During gimnaziu (grades V to VIII) there is no specialisation of studies – education is provided as general education;
  • Şcoala de Arte şi Meserii (Arts and trades school) is organised based on the vocational qualifications provided (levels and specialisations);
  • Liceu – lower cycle is provided in three branches of study – general, TVET and specific education and training (military, theological, sports, arts and pedagogical) – further divided into educational profiles and specialisations.

Gimnaziu

Gimnaziu (grades V to VIII) constitutes the first stage of the lower secondary education, following the elementary education accomplished during the first four grades. Consequently, gimnaziu education is provided as general or comprehensive education. The comprehensive character is ensured through the structure and the content of the National Curriculum: approximately 90% of the teaching-learning time is allocated to the common core curriculum. The duration of lower secondary education in Gimnaziu is of 4 years.

Using the school-based curriculum and extra-curricular activities, a large number of schools (mostly in the urban areas) have developed enriched programmes of study, including for example intensive study of foreign languages, ICT studies, sports, arts, etc. However, these programmes cannot be considered as a specialisation but more as a mean to better support both pupils’ personal development needs and better educational guidance.

In each county are organised a number of schools providing education with complementary or integral arts/sports curricula. These schools function according to a specific curriculum that ensures both accomplishment of the finalities and educational objectives specific to the education level and intensive arts/sports training. The admission of pupils in these schools is done after testing their skills and abilities according to the specificity of the arts/sports. Even though most of the pupils graduating these types of schools continue their studies in the same domain, is still rather considered a pre-specialization for them, supporting their personal development needs and educational guidance, more  than a strict specialization.

Liceu – Second Phase of Lower Secondary Level

The lower secondary education (lower cycle of high school) is provided in three different branches of study: general, TVET and specific education and training (military, theological, sports, arts and pedagogical). The duration of studies in the lower cycle of high school  is of 2 years for day classes. For evening classes the duration of the studies is extended to 1 year.

Each branch of study is further divided into educational profiles and specialisations/basic acquisitions:

  • General Branch of study,
  1. Educational profile Humanities, Educational specialisation Philology; Social sciences.
  2. Educational profile Sciences (real), Educational specialisation Mathematics-informatics; Natural sciences.
  • Technological Branch of study,
  1. Educational profile Technical, 11 specialisation.
  2. Educational profile Services, 3 specialisation.
  3. Educational profile Natural resources and protection of the environment, 5 specialisation.
  • Vocational Branch of study:
  1. Educational profile: Military, 3 specialisation.
  2. Educational profile: Theological, 10 specialisation.
  3. Educational profile: Sports, 54 sports specialisations.
  4. Educational profile: Arts, 5 specialisation.
  5. Educational profile: Pedagogical, 2 specialisation.

Arts and Trades School (Şcoala de Arte şi Meserii)

The nomenclatures of the vocational qualifications provided in the pre-university education, as well as the duration of the studies are established by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports, with advice from the Ministry of Labour, Social Solidarity and Family and is approved through Decision of the Romanian Government. The duration of education provided by  the Arts and Trades Schools is of 2 years for day classes. This duration is extended by 1 year for the evening classes form and for special education.

Curriculum, Subjects, Number of Hours

The content of secondary education is established within the National Curriculum, defined by the Education Law (Law 84/1995, republished, subsequently modified and completed) as the coherent assembly of curriculum frameworks, syllabi and textbooks applied for each education level, branch of study, profile, specialisation and grade. The National Curriculum for secondary level covers phases of both compulsory education (Gimnaziul, followed by the lower cycle of Liceu or by Arts and Trades School) and post-compulsory education (the upper cycle of Liceu), as a demand to the diversity of interests and needs of the pupils aged 11 to 18/19. Therefore, the national curriculum for secondary level presents structural diversity, depending on each educational level.

The curriculum frameworks and the syllabi are elaborated by national committees of specialists, under the supervision of experts. The national committees of specialist are composed by teachers of pre-university and high education, inspectors and teachers, highly estimated at national level for their professional activity. As a result of the public debates, the curriculum frameworks and the syllabi are approved by Order of the minister of education, becoming normative documents, mandatory for the whole national education system.

National Curriculum for Gimnaziu (first phase of lower secondary level)

Gimnaziul (grades V-VIII) represents the first phase of the lower secondary level, being followed by a second phase of lower secondary level, which can be, depending on the case, the lower cycle of Liceu and of the Arts and Trades School. In Gimnaziu, which one single training path, the curriculum frameworks structure the curricular offer in two main parts: the central offer, represented by a common core curriculum, and the local offer, represented by the school based curriculum.

The common core represents the common and mandatory education offer for all pupils, established at national level, consisting of the same subjects and timetables for each grade and using the same syllabi. The educational units can also organize extra-curricular activities, depending on the existing resources and needs. The extra-curricular activities can include the study of modern languages, remedial education, preparation of the pupils with high performances, cultural, artistic and sports activities, ICT, etc. According to the legislation in force, the teachers jobs can include up to 3 periods of extra-curricular activities dedicated to high scholar results.

The school-based curriculum represents the entire educational processes and learning experiences which each education institution provides directly to the pupils in a certain class, within the personal curricular offer. The school based curriculum consists of one or several optional subjects and, depending on the case, of further or extended study classes of the core curriculum. The curriculum frameworks establish, for each grade: the minimum and maximum number of classes per week, the compulsory and the optional subjects, the global number of classes per week, allocated at the decision of the school, for the school based curriculum.

The school based curriculum may include:

  • Further study classes of the subjects from the core curriculum – dedicated to the subjects included in the common core curriculum and using the same syllabi as the one established within the common core curriculum. These types of activities are usually meant for supporting low achievers and intend to attaining only compulsory reference objectives and contents; in-depth tuition is done only for the subjects which has allotted minimum and maximum periods in the curriculum frameworks and request various learning activities. It happens only in cases of pupils who did not attain the minimum level of the reference objectives and targets provided by the syllabi in the previous school years.
  • Extensions of the subjects from the core curriculum – dedicated to the subjects included in the common core curriculum and using extended syllabi (supplementary/same educational objectives and supplementary content). These types of activities are usually meant for supporting high achievers according with the extensions of the syllabi reference objectives and contents are marked with an asterisk in the curriculum frameworks. Extensions are allowed to subjects with flexible number of periods allotted and only to pupils interested to supplementary studies.
  • Optional subjects - different subjects not included in the core curriculum for the given education level, route, profile, specialisation and grade. In some cases these subjects are introduced  by the common curriculum for other education level, route, profile, specialisation and grade (e.g. foreign languages, ACT, etc.) or suggested by the Ministry as a National Base of optional subjects (e.g. Health and Care, Ecology, European Studies, Local culture and traditions etc.).

In these cases an adapted syllabi can be used. For optional subjects that are not part of the National Curriculum (e.g. local history, cultural heritage, applied mathematics and sciences, use of ICT, etc.) the teachers proposing the optional subjects have to prepare the syllabi and to submit it for approval to the County School Inspectorate. The whole content of the school based curriculum – the structure (the number and type of the optional subjects, the further/extended study classes of the core curriculum) and the number of periods – are established based on the advice of the pupils, parents and other partners, with the approval of the teaching board; therefore, the administration board of each education institution decides every year the exact number of periods per week for each subject (for the ones that the frame-curriculum specifies the maximum and minimum number of periods per week). The total number of periods per week established for each grade must respect the limits specified in the National Curriculum. Schools can also organise extra-curricular activities, according to the existing resources and needs. Extra-curricular activities can include study of foreign languages, remedial/high performance education, cultural activities, arts, sports, use of ICT, etc. According to the in-force legislation, teachers’ norms can include up to 3 classes per week of extra-curricular activities dedicated to accomplishment of high scholastic performances – which no longer refers only to activities with high achievers.

The National Curriculum for the grades V-VIII is structured in seven curricular areas defined on the basis of epistemological and psycho-pedagogical principles and criteria: (1) Language and communication; (2) Mathematics and natural sciences; (3) Human being and society; (4) Arts; (5) Physical education and sports; (6) Technologies and (7) Counselling and guidance. Optional subjects/activities can fall in either of the curricular areas.

The syllabi for Gymnasium define, for each compulsory subject, the education objectives (frame objectives and reference objectives) aimed in the learning process, the subject targets and the curricular attainment standards of each subject to be reached by the end of the Gymnasium. Moreover, they provide methodological orientations (suggestions for learning activities) for the teachers, to plan the didactical strategy in order to achieve the aimed education objectives and therefore the curricular attainment standards by the end of the Gymnasium. In the case of the subjects where the curriculum frameworks specifies the minimum and maximum number of periods per week, the syllabi attainment defines a common body of reference objectives and targets (for the minimum number of periods per week) for all pupils, as well as reference objectives and additional targets, marked by asterisk (if the institution chooses the maximum number of periods per week, specified in the curriculum frameworks)

The frameworks targets are education objectives referring to the development of capacities and attitudes generated by the features of the subject, aimed along several study years, usually during all years of Gimnaziu. Reference objectives are the aimed learning targets by the end of each school year indicating the pupil’s progress in the development and acquisition of knowledge in each school year.  The curricular  standards are evaluation criteria of the quality of the learning process. They represent synthetic statements aimed to indicate to what extension of  the objectives of each subject are being reached by the pupils at the end of Gimnaziu.

In 2008, the core curricula for grades V-VIII were revised, according to the following principles: focus on the pupil, as a subject of the instruction-education activity; selection of the learning contents, according to the social, scientific and motivational learning criteria, so that all reference objectives of the syllabus to be covered by the contents; to remove theoretical learning approaches and promote learning practical strategies. assuring the coherence of the whole curricular offer of Gimnaziu with the curricular offer for primary and for high school education (where are considered the key-competences defined by the European frameworks).

National Curriculum for the lower cycle of Liceu

The lower cycle of Liceu (grades IX-X) is a part of the lower secondary education level and represents, together with the Arts and Trades School, one of the two alternative educational paths in order to complete the compulsory education. Comparing to Gimnaziu, which has only one possible training path, the lower cycle of Liceu is organised in three branches (general, vocational, technological), and each of them provides, depending on the case, different profiles and specialisations.Taking into account the diversity of profiles, the curriculum frameworks for the lower cycle of Liceu (grades IX-X) depend significantly on the branch, profile and, depending on the case, on the specialisation.

The curricular offer established by the curriculum frameworks is structured in three main parts: core curriculum, the differentially curriculum and school based curriculum – for the general and vocational branch, respectively local development curriculum – for the technological branch.

The core curriculum and the differentially curriculum represent the central offer.

The school based curriculum and the local development curriculum represent the educational offer established by each school.

For all branches, profiles and specialisations within the lower cycle of high school, the core-curriculum represents the common and mandatory central offer for all pupils and aims the acquisition of key competences for general education, defined at European level. Therefore, for all subjects of the core-curriculum are used the same syllabi, no matter of the branch, profile or specialisation. The core-curriculum offer assures the basis for equal opportunities for all pupils, regardless of the type of high school (branch, profile, specialisation).

The subjects of the core curriculum of the lower cycle of high school are classified in 7 curricular areas (Language and communication, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Human Being and Society, Arts, Technologies, Physical Education and Sports, Counseling and Orientation),all specified in the national curriculum for primary education and for Gimnaziu; in this way, it is assured the continuity of the curriculum frameworks for grades I – a VIII-a and the curricula frameworks for high school and for Arts and trades school.

The differentially curriculum represents the mandatory central offer for all pupils with the same profile (within the general and technological branch)/ the same specialisation (within the vocational branch); it includes the same subjects, the same time tables, corresponding for each profile; it aims the pupil’s initiation in specialised training routes, providing a diverse basis of possibilities, in order to turn the pupil straight to the next level of studies or to integrate her/him after graduation in the social life and occupation.

The institutional curricular offer is realised within the school based curriculum, in the case of general and vocational branches, respectivelly within the local development curriculum in the case of the technological branch.

The school based curriculum represents all educational processes and learning experiences which each education institution provides directly to the pupils in a certain class, within the personal curricular offer. The school based curriculum consists of one or several optional subjects and, depending on the case, of further or extended study classes of the core curriculum.

The school based curriculum can include:

  • In-depth study classes of the subjects from the core/differentially curriculum; in-depth tuition attain specific competences and targets, new content’s units.
  • Extensions of the subjects from the core/differentially curriculum – dedicated to the subjects included in the common core curriculum and using extended syllabi (supplementary/same educational objectives and supplementary content).
  • Optional subjects - different subjects, not included in the core curriculum; in these cases  adapted syllabi could be used to attain new specific competences and contents.
  • Integrated optional – new subject structured about an integrated topic of a curricular area or of more curricular areas to attain new specific complex interdisciplinary competences and contents.

The whole content of the school based curriculum – the structure (the number and type of the optional subjects, the further/extended study classes of the core curriculum) and the number of periods – are established based on the advice of the pupils, parents and other partners, with the approval of the teaching board. The total number of periods per week established for each grade must respect the limits specified in the National Curriculum.

The syllabi for the optional subjects elaborated at local level need the advice of the specialized inspector of the local school inspectorate.

The local development curriculum contains the allocated periods for the development of the specific institutional curricular offer, realized in cooperation with the economic agents. Through this curricular offer, in the local technological context required by the economical agents, it is attained the curriculum framework for the technical competences described in the VET standards .

As a consequence of the extension of the compulsory education up to 10 grades (Law no. 268/2003) and the assumption by Romania the development objectives of education and training  systems in Europe (Barcelona-Copenhagen process) – starting with the school year 2004-2005, in the lower cycle of high school have been implemented new curricula frameworks and new syllabi. The changes in the National Curriculum have been made in order to assure to the graduates the basic education defined at European level, in the 8 areas of key competences: communication in the mother tongue; communication in foreign languages; mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology; digital competence; interpersonal, intercultural, social and civic competences; sense of initiative and entrepreneurial culture;  learning to learn, cultural awareness and expression. Directly, the balanced formation of the key-competences aims to the achievement of the necessary knowledge and to the formation of the expected skills and attitudes. Doing so, all the competences achieved during basic education are requested to the benefit of the individual and society.

The general competences of each subject are defined in the curriculum frameworks and are usually acquired during all grades of high school education; they have a high level of generalization and complexity and turn the didactical strategies to the final pupils achievements. The specific competences corresponds to the syllabi contents are defined for each subject and acquired during one year of study; they derive from the general competences and represent key stages in the acquisition of the general competences.

National Curriculumul for the Arts and Trades School

The Arts and Trades School (grades IX-X) is part of the lower secondary leve land represents, same as the lower cycle of Liceu, one of the two alternative paths in order to complete the compulsory education.

The curriculum frameworks for the Arts and Trades School structures the curricular offer in two main parts: the core curriculum and the local development curriculum. The core curriculum represents the central offer of subjects and modules, with the corresponding timetables, common for all vocational qualifications. The local development curriculum consists of the specific curricular offer of an education institution, mean to adapt the learning outcomes with the local labour market needs. This curricular offer ensure the curriculum framework aims for an instruction which allow, in the local technological context, the holistic competences attainment described in the VET Standards. The modules within the local development curriculum are elaborated at institutional level, in collaboration with the school’s partner institutions. At institutional level, the local development curriculum is advised by the responsible person for the curricular area Technologies and by the Local Development and Social Partnership Board, to be approved by the District School Inspectorate. The local development curriculum is elaborated according to the provisions of the Order of the Minister of Education, Research and Innovation no. 4338/09.06.2008  regarding the  methodological items to elaborate the local development curriculum for VET. 

Teaching Methods and Materials

The teaching methods applied in secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education are carefully chosen so as to meet the finalities and the educational objectives set for the education levels and most of all, the pupils’ age and individual particularities. The teacher is fully responsible for choosing the methods, taking the structure of the class into consideration, the teaching aids available in the school and following the methodological guidelines provided by the National Curriculum and the teachers’ guides for each subject.

During secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education a teacher teaches each subject. According to the principle of continuity, usually the same teacher works with a given class throughout all the study years during which the respective subject is studied within a given educational cycle/level.

During a given lesson, the class management is entirely the responsibility of the teacher. In consequence, teachers can decide per se to organise the activities with all the pupils (frontal activities), in smaller groups or individually (differentiated activities) – depending on the specific objectives of the lesson and the level of the pupils. Separated group teaching-learning activities, with groups comprising at least 10 pupils, can be organised in one of the following situations: Activities organised within the school-based curriculum and/or extra-curricular activities; Intensive study of a foreign language; Study of the foreign language for bilingual classes; Informatics intensive study; Certain practical training (T/VET).

Individualised teaching-learning activities can be organised only during after-school activities and parents usually support the necessary costs.

Regarding the teaching methods, the following general remarks can be taken into consideration:

  • The oral communication methods utilized can be classified as expository methods (description, explanation, etc.) and conversational methods (conversation, heuristic conversation, questioning on a special subject, etc.).
  • Teachers also use exploratory learning methods: direct exploration of objects and phenomena (systematic and independent observation, experiments, practical work, etc.) and indirect exploration (problem solving, demonstration through pictures, films, etc.);
  • The system promoted the use of interactive methods focused on the each individual and based on the pupils’ direct voluntary action (exercises, practical work, etc.) and simulated action (didactic games, learning through dramatisation, etc.);
  • Practical training is a compulsory activity carried on within T/VET and is ensured by engineer-teachers and/or foremen in laboratories and workshops, as well as by tutors (staff designated by the employers for the practical training of the pupils in the enterprise).

At the end of each lesson, teachers usually assign the homework for the next class. The homework requests solving exercises and realising essays, activities, etc. chosen either from the textbooks or from other printed teaching aids (pupils’ textbooks, texts anthologies, problems and exercises collections, etc.). In some cases pupils are also requested to perform as their homework specific practical activities – like measurements, observations, small practical projects, etc. At the beginning of each lesson teachers usually check with the pupils the homework and, as the case may be, help them in accomplishing it, giving supplementary explanations. As a general rule, the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports  recommends that time dedicated for homework should take into consideration the need of the youngsters to socialise and perform sports and other leisure activities.

Textbooks are provided free of charge for all compulsory education. The Education Law stipulates that teachers are allowed to use only textbooks that are approved by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports . For most subjects taught during secondary education there are three or more alternative textbooks approved by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports for each grade. According to the level of pupils, each teacher decides and recommend at the beginning of the school year the textbooks to be used for each subject.

The teaching aids used in secondary education depend on the education level and subject. Implementation of the e-Learning initiative marked an important momentum in spreading the use of ICT in education, especially at high school level. Nevertheless, further development of the infrastructure and in-service training for the teachers are required.

An important number of publications are available for supporting teaching activities: general or specific teacher-training publications, methodological guides for specific subjects, textbooks for teachers, etc.