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Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

Early education ensures free, integral and harmonious development of the child's personality, according to his rhythm and needs. The education provided has to ensure the differentiated stimulation of children, aiming the intellectual, emotional, social and physical development of each child and targeting to achieve the following results of early education (from birth to 6/7 years old):

  • The free, integral and harmonious development of the child's personality, according to his own pace and general needs, supporting his autonomous and creative training.
  • Development of the capacity to interact with other children, with adults and with the environment to acquire new knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours; encouraging exploration, exercises, tests and experiments, as autonomous learning experiences;
  • The discovery, by each child, of his/her own identity and autonomy and the development of a positive self-image;
  • Supporting the child in the acquisition of knowledge, abilities, skills and attitudes required for his school entry and throughout life.

All activities with young children should respect child's right to play - viewed as a form of activity, method, procedure and means of achieving educational approaches at early ages, as well as a method of stimulating the capacity and creativity of the child, as a right of him and as an opening to freedom to choose, according to his/her own needs.

Steering Documents and Types of Activities

According to the National Education Law (Law No.1/2011, with subsequent amendments), the national curriculum for early education focuses on physical, cognitive, emotional and social development of children, respectively on early remedying of any development deficiencies.

The early education curriculum is determined by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research. 

Early pre-school education targets the overall development of the child, which will assure him a good start in life. The areas of child’s development targeted in the specific curriculum for early pre-school age, as physical development, health, personal care, socio-emotional development, cognitive development, language development and communication, developing skills and attitudes in learning are essential to achieve a customized education, by identifying the child potential and the difficulties/disabilities of each child by the teacher.

The types of activities performed with children in the units that offer early pre-school education services, according to specific curriculum are:

  • a) playing with toy, symbolic play, sensorial game, playing with sand and water, construction game, didactic game;
  • b) artistic and skill activities: drawing, painting, modelling, practical and household activities;
  • c) music and movement activities: auditions, musical games, text games and singing, songs, eurhythmy;
  • d) communication and creative activities: stories, memorization, working with books, reading images;
  • e) awareness activities: observations, readings by pictures, mathematical activities, talks, didactic games, experiments;
  • f) outdoor activities: walks, sand games, games and sports competitions, using playground equipment.

The curriculum for pre-school education promotes the concept of global development of the child, considered to be central in early childhood. The perspective of global development of the child emphasizes the important areas of child development, considering that, in today's society, the training of children for school and for life should take into account not only academic skills, but equally, abilities, skills, attitudes related to socio-emotional development (living and working together or with others, to manage emotions, to accept diversity, tolerance etc.), cognitive development (addressing some problematic situations, divergent thinking, establishment of causal interactions, etc. associations, correlations, etc.) physical development (motricity, health, healthy food etc.). Since the aims of education in the early years (from birth to 6/7 years old) is targeting the global child development, the curriculum objectives are formulated on integrated experiential domains (Language and Communication Domain, Science Domain, Aesthetic and Creative Domain, Man and Society Domain, Psychomotor Domain) as instruments to achieve these objectives and, in the same time, as measurement tools for child development, in the context in which they indicate habits, abilities, skills, content specific to the areas of development. 

The categories of learning activities present in pre-school education are: Activities in experiential domains (which can be integrated activities or by disciplines), Games and chosen activities and Personal development activities. 

The activities in experiential fields are the integrated activities or on disciplines developed with children within projects planned according to the annual study themes proposed by curriculum, as well as to the age and the needs and interests of children in the group. The annual study themes are: Who am I / are we? What and how I want to be? Who and how plans/organizes an activity? How it is, was and will be here on Earth? When, how and why it happens? With what and how do we express what we feel?

The games and activities chosen are those chosen by children and they help them to socialize progressively and to initiate themselves in the knowledge of the physical world, the social and cultural environment to which they belong, the mathematics, the communication, the language reading and writing. They are performed on small groups, in pairs and even individually. 

Personal development activities include routines, transitions and activities during the afternoon (for groups with extended or weekly program), including optional activities.

In the daily program it is mandatory to have at least one activity or one moment/sequence of physical movement (motion game with song and text, physical education activity, refreshing moment, competitions or sports trails, outdoor walks etc.). Also, it is recommended the children's exposure to environmental factors, as a condition for maintaining the health status and hardening of the body and taking out the children outdoors at least once a day, regardless of season.

Teaching Methods and Materials

The teacher is fully responsible for choosing the methods, taking the structure of the group into consideration and the teaching aids available in the kindergarten (grădiniţă) and following the general methodological guidelines provided by the National Curriculum and the teachers’ guides.

During a given activity, the management of the age-level group is the responsibility of the teacher. Teachers can decide to organise the activities with all the children (frontal activities), in smaller groups or individually (differentiated activities) – depending on the specific objectives of the activity and the level of the children.nRegarding the teaching methods, the following general remarks can be taken into consideration:

  • The oral communication methods utilized can be classified as expository methods (story telling, description, explanation, etc.) and conversational methods (conversation, heuristic conversation, questioning on a special subject, etc.).
  • Teachers also use exploratory learning methods: direct exploration of objects and phenomena (systematic and independent observation, small experiments, etc.) and indirect exploration (demonstration through pictures, films, etc.);
  • During most of the activities, teachers use extensively methods based on the pupils’ direct voluntary action (exercises, practical work, etc.) and simulated action (didactic games, learning through drama, etc.);
  • In pre-primary education the game is the major modality to stimulate the mental and physical capacity of the pupils and to facilitate adaptation of the pupils to the requirements of formal education.

The teaching aids used in pre-primary education consist of:

  • natural materials (plants, shells, seeds, insects, rocks, etc.),
  • technical objects (measurement instruments, home appliances, etc.),
  • intuitive materials (cast and clay models),
  • figurative aids (pictures, photographs, atlas books, maps, albums, table games, etc.)
  • printed teaching aids (children books, workbooks, etc.). Printed teaching aids can be acquired by the kindergartens (grădiniţa) or recommended by the teacher and acquired by the children’s parents.