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Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

For each teaching position the Teaching Staff Statute (Law 128/1997) establishes the initial training requirements in the form of appointment conditions. These refer to the education level and the professional training that have to be completed and passed by the prospective teachers. Only persons compelling with these requirements are considered qualified for the considered position. However, under special circumstances, teaching positions in Pre-university education can be occupied for a limited period of time with unqualified personnel. In most cases this works as a postponement of the qualification and is applied only when and where qualified teachers are in short supply (e.g. for certain subjects – like ICT or foreign languages, or in certain areas, etc.). This was a situation rather frequently encountered until the late 1990’s. The unqualified personnel teaching in Pre-university education has reduced significantly in the recent years through alternative initial training routes, recruitment measures and central control over the teachers’ selection, recruitment and appointment procedures.

Teaching positions (also referred to as didactic functions) in Pre-university education are established within the Teaching Staff Statute (Law 128/1997) by education level, and are as follows:

  • In pre-primary education: educator; institutor;
  • In primary education: învăţător; institutor;
  • In secondary education: teacher, psycho-pedagogue-teacher, social pedagogue-teacher, maistru-instructor;
  • In special education and in complex evaluation services (for evaluation and selection of the children with special educational needs): educator, învăţător, învăţător itinerant, institutor, teacher, itinerant teacher, special education teacher, psycho-pedagogue-teacher, school psychologist-teacher, logopaedic-teacher, social pedagogue-teacher, maistru-instructor, învăţător-educator, and profesor-educator.

These are completed with the following teaching positions set for the Pre-university education complementary units:

  • In placement centers: educator, institutor-educator, învăţător-educator, profesor-educator, logopaedic-teacher, psycho-pedagogue-teacher, social pedagogue-teacher;
  • In centres and units for psycho-pedagogical assistance: psycho-pedagogue-teacher, psychologist-teacher, sociologist-teacher, social pedagogue-teacher;
  • In logopaedic inter-school centers and logopaedic school units: logopaedic-teacher qualified in special psycho-pedagogy, psychology or pedagogy;
  • In Teaching Staff Centre (in-service teacher training center): methodologist-teacher, associate-teacher;
  • In sports clubs: teacher, sports-trainer;
  • In extra-school activities units: educator, învăţător, institutor, teacher, maistru-instructor, sports-trainer.

Auxiliary teaching positions (also referred to as auxiliary didactic functions) in Pre-university education are established within the Teaching Staff Statute (Law 128/1997) and are as follows:

  • librarian,
  • ICT assistant,
  • laboratory assistant,
  • technician,
  • school-pedagogue,
  • animator-instructor,
  • instructor for extra-school education,
  • social assistant,
  • music assistant.

The Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports can establish other auxiliary teaching positions, according to the dynamics of the education system in cooperation with the Ministry of Labour, Social Solidarity and Family. Based on this provision of the law, school secretary and school-mediator (school-community relationship mediator for certain target-groups) have been added to the existing auxiliary teaching positions.

For higher education the Teaching Staff Statute (Law 128/1997) establishes the following teaching positions:

  • preparator universitar,
  • asistent universitar,
  • lector universitar/Şef de lucrări,
  • conferenţiar universitar,
  • profesor universitar, 
  • profesor universitar consultant.

The initial teacher training for all teaching positions in Romania is based on a concurrent model – meaning that the education and training in the specialisation of studies is combined with the professional training within the same educational sequence. However, for certain teaching position a supplementary professional training is required that may be considered as part of the initial training but is actually finalised after the graduation of the required education level (e.g. specific training for teaching positions in special education, graduation of doctoral studies for conferenţiar universitar and profesor universitar positions, etc.).

For Pre-university education, the initial training provided within formal education is completed with an insertion period of at least 2 years. During the insertion period debutant(e) teachers are employed based on labour contracts identical with the ones for the fully-flagged teachers, containing the same responsibilities, rights and obligations (including teaching norm, salary, etc.). The insertion period comprises an important supportive and supervising dimension as well as a final formal evaluation – the on-the-job confirmation exam. Only after passing the on-the-job confirmation exam teachers entry their professional life as fully-flagged teachers. Persons that do not pass the exam in the conditions set by the law cannot work anymore as qualified teachers.

Selection, recruitment and appointment of teachers in public and private education have to be based on competitions.

For public Pre-university education selection, recruitment and appointment of the teachers is accomplished through competitive examination, whilst in private Pre-university education and higher education is accomplished through open recruitment.

Basic work conditions for the teachers are established within the Teaching Staff Statute (Law 128/1997). These refer to the teachers’ responsibilities, rights and obligations, appointment conditions, dismissal and retirement conditions, evaluation and in-service training, criteria for establishing norms and salaries, types of and criteria for awarding incentives, distinctions and prizes and for applying sanctions.

Following the on-the-job-confirmation, further professional development of the teachers in Pre-university education is a 2-stage process. Each stage is accomplished through specific evaluations and leads to certification of a higher professional-degree. The professional-degrees that can be obtained by teachers working in Pre-university education are, in this order: the didactic grade II and the didactic grade I. Professional-degrees are rewarded with higher salaries for the same teaching position, level of the initial training and seniority, and entitle the holder to compete for management or guiding and control positions.

Regarding higher education, each successive teaching position is assimilated to a higher professional-degree, the highest being profesor universitar.

In-service training is a right of the teachers in Pre-university education. Educational institutions have to ensure all the necessary conditions for the teachers to participate to in-service training programmes. At the same time, the Teaching Staff Statute (Law 128/1997) states that teachers in Pre-university education participate to in-service training programmes at least once every 5 years or whenever so recommended by the administration council of the school or by the County School Inspectorate.

Teachers in higher education are not compelled to undertake in-service training programmes; the law establishes only the types of in-service training programmes available.

All management and guiding and control positions in Pre-university education are appointed based on competitive examination opened only to the teachers. In order to be admitted in the competitive examination teachers have to comply with specific criteria set by the law and the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports(professional degree, seniority, overall performance, etc.). Specific salary-incentives are established according to the position held and are added to the salary corresponding to the level of the initial training, the professional-degree and seniority.

All the management structures and positions of higher education institutions are elected through secret suffrage for a 4-year period, according to the provisions of the law and of the University Charter.