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Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

Definition of the target group(s)

The term used in the Romanian legislation and practice with reference to children needing special care is handicap. On the second place, as frequency and area of use, is the term deficiency. Both terms are defined within the legal framework and circulate in all relevant areas: child protection, education and health. The concept child with special (educational) needs is used without a cert legal definition and refers to more limited areas, depending on the case – child protection or education. Recent legislative acts have started to use the concept disability. The new concept is meant to cover for both concepts handicap and deficiency.

Specific Support Measures

Children with special educational needs constitute one of the target-groups of the strategic priority Ensuring access to and improving quality of education for everyone.

A number of measures were taken in order to support the integration process – including training, teaching aids, and specific legislation. However, following various assessments and studies performed by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports and other bodies, it is considered that the integration support measures need to be further developed and to address, among other issues, the following: training of the human resources in order to better prepare mainstream schools to integrates pupils with special educational needs.

Training and, in a more general meaning, preparation should be provided for:

  • The management to enable building of an inclusive educational environment;
  • The teachers to develop specific professional competences to work with pupils with special educational needs;
  • The pupils for developing tolerance, understanding, supportive feelings;
  • The parents of all pupils to support their children towards the development of an inclusive educational environment;
  • Development of specific infrastructure for pupils with deficiencies (access pathways, special rest-rooms and toilets, recovery facilities, etc.);
  • Development of school based curricula and activities specifically designed to support school progress of pupils with special education needs – e.g. for remedial education, afternoon programmes, inclusive education, etc.;
  • Ensuring an increased number of support teachers and auxiliary support staff;
  • Diversification and further development of specific teaching aids, as well as reference works on the inclusive education.

According to the provisions of the Education Law, school integration of the children with special educational needs is accomplished through the following forms of education:

  • Within distinct educational institutions, entirely dedicated to education and training of children with special educational needs (separated special education);
  • Groups and classes for children with special educational needs organised within mainstream education institutions (partially integrated special education);
  • Within groups and classes organised in mainstream education institutions (full integrated special education).

A number of measures were taken in order to support the integration process:

  • Specific training for primary school inspectors, teachers and support personnel, teachers for primary education and psycho-pedagogues working for the commissions for child protection subordinated to the County Councils;
  • Elaboration of teaching aids and inclusive education support materials, in cooperation with UNICEF;
  • Transformation of certain special schools in resource centers for integrated education;
  • Elaboration and implementation of the national programme A school for everyone regarding information, awareness and preparation of the schools and communities for integration of the pupils with special educational needs;
  • Elaboration of specific legal framework in order to support the integration process.

To date, in most of the counties exist at least 2 mainstream schools enrolling pupils with special educational needs. Nevertheless, further actions are needed in order to ensure the development of an inclusive educational environment – focusing both on human resources and infrastructure.

Partially or fully integrated special education ensures both the social and school integration of the children with special educational needs, and the development of an inclusive educational environment in mainstream schools. More specifically, the integration process aims to:

  • Offer equal opportunity to education to each and every child, regardless their learning, participation and development possibilities;
  • Preparation of the schools and of the communities (management, teaching staff, parents, community at large) to accept children with special educational needs and thus to develop towards an inclusive educational environment;
  • Accomplishment of the optimal conditions for the intellectual, physical, behavioral, and attitudinal development of the children with special educational needs in the community through: specialised psycho-pedagogical assistance in school; specialised assistance in the family; social specialised services provided to the child and the family from the part of the legal authorities.

The general objectives of partially or fully integrated special education are as follows:

  • To ensure total and active participation in the community life of the youngsters and adults with deficiencies upon completing their formal education;
  • To ensure permanent and continuous assistance of the children with special educational needs in order to lead them towards an independent life, according to their own wills, aspirations and capacities;
  • To remove the causes of the deficiencies, to prevent their aggravation and to diminish their consequences on the child;
  • To avoid/eradicate any type of discrimination towards handicapped/deficient persons.

The specific teaching objectives depend on the education level and are adapted from the ones established for mainstream education to the actual potential of the children.

The co-operation between special educational institutions and mainstream education institutions became a way for ensuring equal opportunities to disabled children. Subsequently, integrated special educational structures have been established in the form of special classes and integration programmes.

Children with special needs are gradually integrated into mainstream schools, with the assistance of psycho-pedagogic specialists. Children temporarily attend special classes until they are integrated into a mainstream school. They may also alternatively attend both special and mainstream classes. Integration programmes are organised in order to support individual integration for 8-12 children into various classes in mainstream schools (for 2 or 3 units located in the same area).