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Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

Lower secondary education is part of compulsory education and gives all pupils equal opportunities in continuing their education at the next education levels. It is provided in two phases, the first is gimnaziu (middle school) and the second is either the lower cycle of liceu (high school) or şcoala de arte şi meserii (arts and trades school).

Regarding the specialisation of studies, the structure of the lower secondary education is as follows:

  • in gimnaziu (grades 5 - 8) there is no specialisation of studies; education is provided as general education, for pupils aged 10 - 14;    
  • in the lower cycle of liceu (high school) there are three paths – general, vocational and aptitude-based (military, theological, sports, arts and pedagogical) – further divided into educational profiles and specializations; it includes grades 9 and 10, for pupils aged 14 - 16;   
  • in şcoala de arte şi meserii (arts and trades school) education is organised based on the vocational qualifications provided (levels and specialisations), and includes grades 9 and 10, for pupils aged 14 - 16.

Upper secondary education (the upper cycle of high school)offers to all pupils who completed the second phase of the lower secondary level (lower cycle of high school or arts and trades school) the possibility to specialise in various theoretical, vocational and aptitude-based domains in order to prepare for the labour market and/or to continue their education at subsequent education levels. The pupils who attended an arts and trades school, in order to participate in upper secondary education (upper cycle of high school) have to attend an additional year and obtain the Level 2 Certificate of vocational skills.

Regarding the specialisation of studies, the structure of the upper secondary education is:   

  • the upper cycle of liceu (high school) with three paths – general, technological and aptitude-based (military, theological, sports, arts and pedagogical) – further divided into educational profiles and specializations; it includes grades 11 and 12, for pupils aged 16 - 18 who completed the lower cycle of high school;   
  • the additional year is organised based on the vocational qualifications that are provided, only for pupils who completed lower secondary education at a school of arts and trades and want to continue their education in the upper cycle of high school and/or to obtain a Level 2 Certificate of Vocational Qualification. (This is being wound up as from the 2009/2010 school year.)

Post-secondary non-tertiary education (învăţământ postliceal) is provided by post-secondary schools (şcoala postliceală) and by foremen schools (şcoala de maiştri). Post secondary non-tertiary education consists of 1 to 3 years of study and is organised at the initiative of the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports or following the specific requests of companies and other interested institutions. The general legal framework for the organisation and functioning of school education, including secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, is established within the Education Law (Law 84/1995, republished, subsequently modified and completed). Implementation of the general provisions of the law is ensured through Government Decisions and Orders of the Minister of Education, Research Research, Youth and Sports and of other central public authorities. Post-secondary non-tertiary education ensures training of specialised technicians and foremen (Level 3 of Advanced Qualification) to work within specific domains according to their qualification.