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Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

Responsible bodies

According to the romanian legislation, the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research has the responsibility to evaluate both the education system and the educational process, according to national standards and through specialised institutions.

Evaluation of the education system and of the educational process has an internal component – entirely performed at the level of the educational institution, and an external component – performed by the following bodies:

  • The Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ARACIS) for the evaluation of the higher education institutions (both process and institutional evaluation);
  • The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research for the evaluation of the entire education system.

Approaches and methods for quality assurance

ARACIS and its subordinated evaluation commissions are responsible for the evaluation and accreditation of Romanian higher education institutions. It is an independent, autonomous body, with its own structure and organization. The main duties of the ARACIS are as follows:

  • To set up valid standards of academic evaluation and accreditation.
  • To draw up a report (based on reports submitted by the evaluation sub-commissions subordinated to it) which proposes the issuing (or not issuing) of the provisory working authorization to each faculty, college or specialisation. This report is also submitted to the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research for approval.
  • To draw up an academic evaluation report of all faculties, colleges and specialisations from higher education institutions, which will be submitted for approval to the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research every five years.
  • To perform annual inspections in the institutions which they were granted the provisory working authorization, in order to verify the compliance with the standards stated when the authorization was granted.

Assurance of the quality of the educational process in higher education is accomplished through periodic evaluations. Evaluation is performed at the level of the university specialisations and/or at the level of institutional structures. The evaluation at the level of institutional structures is carried out for departments, colleges, faculties and/or higher education institutions. The evaluation process is accomplished through internal evaluation, within the respective higher education institution, and external evaluation accomplished by the Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ARACIS), according to the law. Evaluation commissions by reference domain, profile and/or specialisation are established as permanent organisms subordinated to the ARACIS in order to effectively carry out the external evaluation of the higher education institution.

The academic evaluation and the accreditation procedure are based on an assembly of general criteria and obligatory standards. The criteria refer to the fundamental organising and functioning domains specific to higher education: teaching staff, educational content, material basis, research activity, financial activity, and institutional, administrative and management structures. The standards refer to each criterion and specify the minimum obligatory levels during the evaluation and accreditation period (these levels are differentiated for the provisory functioning period and for the period subsequent establishment through the law). The general criteria and the basic obligatory standards are set by the law whilst the specific criteria by reference domain and specialisation of study are established by the evaluation commissions subordinated to ARACIS.

The authorisation for provisory functioning is withdrawn through Government Decision for the faculties, colleges and specialisations found below the national standards, as proved by the negative evaluation reports of the ARACIS. The respective faculties, colleges and specialisations enter a liquidation procedure starting with the first year of study. In case of the accredited higher education institutions a negative report of the ARACIS for certain faculties, colleges and specialisations determine first a warning from the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research. In case that after one year a second negative report is issued following a second evaluation, the respective faculty, college or specialisation enters with the first year of study in liquidation procedure through Ministerial Order.