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Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

Demographic Situation

Romania's population at 1st July 2008 was of 21.504.442 inhabitants, with the average density of 90.2 inhabitants per sq. km (the area of Romania is 238.391 sq. km). In 2008, 55% of Romania’s population lived in urban areas and 45% in rural areas. Demographic decline is present both in urban and in rural areas. In 2008, average life expectancy was of 73.03 years, being of 76.68 years, for women and 69.49 years, for men. During the last 25 years, a constant process of ageing can be observed. This process of demographic ageing is more important in rural areas than in urban areas.

Official and Minority Languages

Article 13 of the Constitution stipulates that in Romania the official language is Romanian.

The Constitution and the legislation recognise all the nationalities (ethnic groups) other than Romanian and living in Romanian territory as national minorities of Romania and their mother tongues as national minorities’ languages.

According to the 2002 census, of the total population of Romania 89.48% were Romanians, 6.60% Hungarians, 2.47% Rromas (Gypsies), 0.28% Ukrainians, 0.28% Germans and approximately 0.9% other nationalities.

Applying the provisions of the Constitution, the Law of National Education  (Law 1/2011) states that:

  • Education and training at all levels is provided in Romanian Language. Education and training can also be provided in the national minorities languages and in foreign languages of international circulation;
  • Schools or classes are organized and function with tuition in Romanian and, as required, in the national minorities languages in each locality or schooling is ensured in the national minorities languages in the nearest locality where this is possible;
  • Learning in school of Romanian, as the official language, is compulsory for all Romanian citizens, irrespective of their nationality. The curriculum frameworks shall ensure the necessary number of classes and conditions for mastering the official language;
  • The persons belonging to the national minorities have the right to study and be instructed in their mother tongue at all levels and forms of education as well as in all types of education providing there is a sufficient demand.

The Law of National Education regulates in detail, the specific conditions for organizing and accomplishing education for persons belonging to national minorities. 

Religions

The Constitution guarantees the freedom of religious beliefs and the equality of all citizens regardless their belief and stipulates the basic principles for religious freedom and the organisation of religious cults in Romania. Religious cults are freely organised according to their own statutes and are autonomous from the State.

According to the Constitution, the State supports the officially recognized religious cults through: facilitating religious assistance in the army and in hospitals, penitentiaries, asylums and orphanages; guaranteeing the freedom of religious education according to the specific requirements of the cults; ensuring conditions for religion to be taught in public schools, according to the religious beliefs and requirements of students and/or parents.

Any forms, means, acts or actions of religious enmity in the relationships among religious cults are expressly prohibited by the Constitution.

The general legal framework provided by the Constitution regarding religion is developed and detailed through various legislative acts. Therefore, a specific law stipulates the general regime of the religious cults and exertion of religious freedoms (Law 489/28.12.2006). The Ministry of Culture and Cults is the authority of the central public administration to elaborate and implement strategies and policies in the domain.

The large majority of Romania’s citizens are of the orthodox belief – according to the 2002 census, approximately 18.8 million persons, meaning 86.8% of the Romanian population. Beside the orthodox religion, in Romania various other religious cults, organisations and churches are recognised officially, more important being the following cults: Catholic, Protestant, Evangelic, Islamic and Mosaic.

Religious cults freely elect their leaders and nominate their clerical servants, without any interference from the State. Education of the clerical servants is accomplished through schools, faculties and theological institutes of the religious cults, most of these being part of the public education and training system.