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Romania:Political and Economic Situation

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

In Romania, GDP increased in 2011, in real terms, by 2.5% as compared to 2010.

Quarterly evolution shows that, after an increase of 1.7% of GDP in the QI as compared to the same quarter of 2010, a slower growth annual rate of 1.4% was registered in the QII. In QIII, Romanian economy grew by 4.4%, this representing the strongest quarterly economic advance from the beginning of 2010 up to present. Growth was mainly driven by a good agricultural harvest, but also by industry production growth and by the return of the construction sector on a positive track. In QIV and despite a deteriorated global environment, Romania’s economy grew by 1.9%.

Domestic demand grew by 3.1% in 2011, as compared to 2010 amid a 1.3% growth of private consumption and a 6.3% increase of gross fixed capital formation. Government/public consumption (including its individual and collective consumption) decreased by 3.5%. The exports of goods and services rose by 9.9%, while imports increased by 10.5%, thus the contribution of net exports to real GDP growth turned to be negative, namely of -0.8%.

On the supply side, it is worth mentioning that the gross added value for agriculture grew remarkably by 11.3%, while the one for industry increased by 5%. Construction output increased by 2.7%, while the services sector decreased by 0.1%; yet, within the services sector, the gross added value of some branches like “Entertainment, cultural and leisure activities; domestic products repairs and other services” and “trade; transport and storage; hotels and restaurants” grew by 4.8%, respectively by 1.2%.

In 2011, the value of the exports of goods grew by 20.5%, as compared to 2010, which represent an additional amount of almost 7.7 billion Euro. The average monthly export value was 3.8 billion Euros, as compared to 3.1 billion Euro in the previous year. The structure of exports has improved, which is reflected in the fact that 80.9% of Romanian exports consisted in manufactured goods. Also, the goods of machines and transport equipments’ manufacturing industry represented 41.2% of the total exports. The imports of goods increased by 16.7%, imports of goods for machines and transport equipments’ manufacturing industry accounted for 34.6% of the total imports. Following these developments, the FOB-CIF trade deficit increased by 2%, as compared to 2010.

The balance of payments’ current account registered an increasing deficit by 3% as compared to 2010, representing 4.2% of GDP. The deficit was the result of the deficits in the balance of goods and of net incomes from abroad, the excess balance of services and of net transfers from abroad compensating a part of the current account deficit.

In December 2011, consumer prices increased by 3.14% as compared to December 2010, by 4.82 pps lower than the increase from the corresponding period from the previous year. For the whole year, the average inflation was 5.79%.


Source: Report on implementation of the National Reform Programme 2011-2013, Ministry of European Affairs