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Romania:Overview

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

 

Key features of the education system 

In Romania the education represents a national priority.

The education system is administrated at:

  • national level by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research (MENCS)
  • central level, in cooperation with other ministries and institutional structures subordinated to the Government, and at
  • local level by the county school inspectorates, as subordinated local institutions. 

The national educational system:

  • has an open character, allowing the mobility of pupils, by transfer from a school unit to another school unit, from a class to another class, from a field of study to another field of study and from a pathway to another pathway.
  • has a pluralistic character (public or private schools, in educational alternative system) and it provides schooling methods in the official state language (the Romanian language), in the native languages of the pupils belonging to the national minorities or in languages of international circulation. 

The general legal framework for the organization, administration and functioning of the education in Romania is established by: 

  • the Constitution (ch.2, ch. 32) 
  • the Law of National Education – organic law
  • ordinary laws and Government ordinances.

The specific procedures and regulations are established by Government Decisions and orders of the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research.

The state ensures equal rights of access to all levels and forms of pre-university and higher education, as well as to lifelong learning, without any form of discrimination, to Romanian citizens, as well as to the citizens of the other European Union member states, of the states belonging to the European Economic Area and of the Swiss Confederation. 

In Romania only the diplomas acknowledged by the Romanian state, according to the legislation in force, are available. 

The general mandatory education has 11 grades and includes:

  • the primary education
  • the lower secondary education
  • the first 2 years of the upper secondary education. 

The average duration of attending the preschool education is 2.5 years.

The public high school education is generalized and free. The high school education becomes mandatory no later than in the year 2020.

The diversification of the professional education offer from 2016 is taken into consideration, the professional dual education being regulated, as a form of organization of the professional and technical education.

The forms of organization of the pre-university education are:

  • frequency education - mandatory education
  • reduced frequency education.  

In accordance with the Law of Education N° 1/2011, the pre-university education system is undergoing a curricular reform, currently at the level of secondary school education. The Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research defines the national curriculum at all levels of education and sets the studies certification procedures. 

Stages of the education system 

The national education system includes the following levels: 

Early education (0—6 years)

Early education (0—6 years), consisting of:

  • the before preschool level (0—3 years)
  • the preschool education (3—6 years), which includes:
    • the small group
    • the middle group
    • the big group.

In public institutions it is free.

Primary education (ISCED 1)

Primary education (ISCED 1) includes:

  • the preparatory grade
  • grades 1—4.

Secondary lower education (ISCED 2) or secondary education

Secondary lower education (ISCED 2) or secondary education, which includes grades 5—8. The access to the higher level is achieved by a national evaluation examination and distribution in upper secondary education units. 

The secondary superior education (ISCED 3)

The secondary superior education (ISCED 3) can be:

  • high school education, which includes the high school grades 9-12/13, with the following pathways:
    • theoretical
    • vocational
    • technological, or
  • a 3-year professional education. The graduates of the professional education promoting the certification examination of the professional qualification may attend the high school education courses.

The professional and technical education is composed of:

  • professional education
  • technical education
  • post secondary education.

The non-university tertiary education (ISCED 4)

The non-university tertiary education (ISCED 4) includes the post secondary education. 

The higher education (ISCED 5-8)

The higher education (ISCED 5-8) is organized in: universities, study academies, institutes, higher studies schools, referred to as higher education institutions or universities, temporarily authorized or certified.

The high school graduates with high school diploma can enrol in the higher education. The admission conditions are different from one institution to another.

The structure of the higher education reflects the principles of the Bologna process:

  • Bachelor studies
  • Master studies
  • PhD studies.

Adult education

Adult education includes training programmes at all qualification levels, organized in the public or private sector. 


Structure of the national education system

2016 diagram RO.pngsource: Eurydice 2016


Useful links

The regulation of the functioning of the education system, national strategies -  http://www.edu.ro/

The certification and the equivalence of studies -  http://www.cnred.edu.ro/

Research and development of educational reforms - http://www.ise.ro/ , http://programe.ise.ro/ 

Quality assessment in education - https://www.edu.ro/etichete/aracip, http://www.aracis.ro/

The evaluation of key skills, national evaluations, OECD evaluation - http://www.rocnee.eu/index2.htm

Research and innovation in higher education - http://uefiscdi.gov.ro/

Development of the vocational and technical education - http://www.tvet.ro/

Statistical data -  http://www.insse.ro/cms/

Common European Reference Tools Provided by the Eurydice Network