- Belgium (Flemish Community)
- Belgium (French Community)
- Belgium (German-Speaking Community)
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Czech Republic
- former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
- United Kingdom (England)
- United Kingdom (Northern Ireland)
- United Kingdom (Scotland)
- United Kingdom (Wales)
- Romania:Index (14:18, 19 June 2014)
- Romania:Ongoing reforms and policy developments (14:17, 19 June 2014)
- Romania:Introduction (14:11, 19 June 2014)
- Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments (13:48, 19 June 2014)
- Romania:Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability (23:17, 31 May 2014)
- Romania:Reforms in Higher Education (23:15, 31 May 2014)
- Romania:Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning (23:14, 31 May 2014)
- Romania:Reforms in School Education (23:12, 31 May 2014)
- Romania:Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care (23:07, 31 May 2014)
- Romania:Overview of the education reform process and drivers (18:42, 31 May 2014)
- Romania:Overall national education strategy and key objectives (18:35, 31 May 2014)
- Romania:Legislation (18:20, 31 May 2014)
- Romania:European perspective (15:32, 14 May 2014)
- Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education (15:35, 31 December 2013)
- Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education (15:04, 31 December 2013)
- Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education (14:38, 31 December 2013)
- Romania:Main Programmes and Provision in Adult Education and Training (13:52, 31 December 2013)
- Romania:Institutions Providing Adult Education and Training (13:21, 31 December 2013)
- Romania:Adult Education and Training (13:09, 31 December 2013)
- Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding (12:42, 31 December 2013)
- Romania:Overview (10,828 views)
- Romania:Primary Education (1,021 views)
- Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments (880 views)
- Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education (836 views)
- Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care (784 views)
- Romania:Higher Education (766 views)
- Romania:Teachers and Education Staff (727 views)
- Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends (668 views)
- Romania:Adult Education and Training (580 views)
- Romania:Organisation and Governance (571 views)
The education system is managed at national level by the Ministry of Education and Scientific Research (MECS). In the execution of its specific responsibilities, the Ministry of Education and Scientific Research cooperates at central level with other ministries and institutional structures subordinated to the Government.
The general legal framework for the organisation, administration and provision of education in Romania is established through the Constitution, the National Education Law – a fundamental law, ordinary laws and governmental ordinances. Specific procedures and regulations are established through Government Decisions and Orders of the Ministry of Education and Scientific Research. Basic principles with regard to the education in Romania are established by the Constitution, Chapter II “Fundamental rights and liberties”, Article 32 “Right to education”.
The National Education Law (no. 1/2011) provides the legal framework for the exercise of the basic right to lifetime an education under the authority of the Romanian state. The law regulates the structure, the functions, the organization and functioning of the national state, private and confessional educational system.
The law aims at promoting an education based on values, creativity, cognitive and will capacities and action-based capacities, fundamental knowledge and skills, knowledge and abilities of direct usage, in the profession and the society. The law aims at forming by means of education the mental infrastructure of the Romanian society, in accordance with the new requirements imposed by Romania’s EU membership and by the existence within the context of the globalization and sustainable generation of a highly-competitive national human resource, capable of functioning efficiently in the present and future society. The educational ideal of the Romanian school consists in the free, and harmonious of human individuality, in forming the autonomous personality and in assuming a system of values which are necessary to personal fulfillment and development, the development of the business spirit, the active participation of citizens in society, social integration and employment. The state provides Romania citizens with equal rights of access to all levels and forms of pre-university and higher education, as well as lifetime education without any form of discrimination. The citizens of the other EU states and the states belonging to the European Economical space and Swiss confederation enjoy the same rights.
In Romania, education is a national priority.
The main purpose of the education and vocational training of children, young people and adults is to develop competences, in the form of a multifunctional and transferable set of knowledge, skills/abilities and aptitudes, necessary for:
- (a) Personal accomplishment and development by achieving personal life objectives, according to one’s personal the interests and aspirations, and to the desire to learn throughout the whole life.
- (b) Social integration and active civic participation to the society.
- (c) Holding a job and taking part into the functioning and development of a sustainable economy.
- (d) Forming an outlook on life, based on human and scientific values, national and universal culture and stimulation of intercultural dialogue.
- (e) Education based on dignity, tolerance and observance of human fundamental rights and freedom.
- (f) Cultivation of sensibility towards human problems, the moral and civic values and respect for nature and natural, social and cultural environment.
In Romania, only diplomas recognized by the Romanian State, in compliance with the applicable laws, are valid. The statute of the graduation documents issued by the Educational facilities and institutions is established by order of the Ministry of Education and Scientific Research. The content and format of the graduation documents are set by Government decision, at the proposal of the Ministry of Education and Scientific Research.
Compulsory education is a 10-year education and includes primary and secondary education. The obligation to attend the 10-year daytime education ceases at 18 years old. In order to fulfill the objectives of education and vocational training through the national education system, state high school education is generalized and free.
The national pre-university educational system includes the following levels:
- Early education (0 – 6 years), including the ante-preschool level (0-3 years) and pre-school education (3-6 years), which includes the little group, the medium group and the big group;
- Primary education which includes the preparatory grade and 1st – 4th grades;
- The secondary education, which includes:
- (i) the lower secondary or middle education, which includes 5th –8th grades;
- (ii) the secondary upper education which can be:
- (ii1) high school education, which includes 9th – 12th/13th high school grades, with the following paths: theoretical vocational and technological;
- (ii2) vocational education with a duration of 3 years
- Tertiary non-university education, which includes post-high school education.
High-school, vocational and technological education, training and high-school education are organized for specialization and qualifications set by the Ministry of Education and Scientific Research, according to the National Qualifications Register.
The general compulsory education consists in the primary education, the lower secondary education and the first 2 years of the upper secondary education.
The duration of studies within the middle secondary education is 4 or 5 years, according to the framework plans approved by the Ministry of Education and Scientific Research. For some full-time education forms with frequency and for the part-time middle secondary education, the duration of studies extends by one year.
The graduates of the Xth grade from the technological or vocational path who completed a practical training stage may take an exam for certifying the qualification corresponding to the certification level established by the National Qualifications Framework.
The training and technical education is made up of: training, technical and post high-school education.
The forms of organization of pre-university education are: daytime and evening education. Compulsory education is a daytime type of education.
The higher education is ensured by universities, academies, institutes, higher education schools, and other such, named higher education institutions or universities.
Structure of the national education system 2014/15
Age of students Programme duration (years)
Common European Reference Tools Provided by the Eurydice Network
- National Student Fee and Support Systems
- Organisation of the Academic Year in Higher Education
- Organisation of School Time in Europe(Primary and general secondary education)
- Recommended Annual Instruction Time in Full-Time Compulsory Education in Europe (Presented by grades/stages for full time compulsory education as well as by subject and country.)
- Teachers and School Heads Salaries and Allowances in Europe (Salaries and allowances of teachers and school heads at pre-primary, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education levels.)