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Romania:Overview

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

 

The education system is managed at national level by the Ministry of Education and Scientific Research (MECS). In the execution of its specific responsibilities, the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research cooperates at central level with other ministries and institutional structures subordinated to the Government.

The general legal framework for the organisation, administration and provision of education in Romania is established through the Constitution, the National Education Law – a fundamental law, ordinary laws and governmental ordinances. Specific procedures and regulations are established through Government Decisions and Orders of the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research. Basic principles with regard to the education in Romania are established by the Constitution, Chapter II “Fundamental rights and liberties”, Article 32 “Right to education”.

The National Education Law (no. 1/2011)  provides the legal framework for the exercise of the basic right to lifetime an education under the authority of the Romanian state. The law regulates the structure, the functions, the organization and functioning of the national state, private and confessional educational system.

The law aims at promoting an education based on values, creativity, cognitive and will capacities and action-based capacities, fundamental knowledge and skills, knowledge and abilities of direct usage, in the profession and the society. The law aims at forming by means of education the mental infrastructure of the Romanian society, in accordance with the new requirements imposed by Romania’s EU membership and by the existence within the context of the globalization and sustainable generation of a highly-competitive national human resource, capable of functioning efficiently in the present and future society. The educational ideal of the Romanian school consists in the free, and harmonious of human individuality, in forming the autonomous personality and in assuming a system of values which are necessary to personal fulfillment and development, the development of the business spirit, the active participation of citizens in society, social integration and employment. The state provides Romania citizens with equal rights of access to all levels and forms of pre-university and higher education, as well as lifetime education without any form of discrimination. The citizens of the other EU states and the states belonging to the European Economical space and Swiss confederation enjoy the same rights.

In Romania, education is a national priority.

The main purpose of the education and vocational training of children, young people and adults is to develop competences, in the form of a multifunctional and transferable set of knowledge, skills/abilities and aptitudes, necessary for:

  • (a) Personal accomplishment and development by achieving personal life objectives, according to one’s personal the interests and aspirations, and to the desire to learn throughout the whole life.
  • (b) Social integration and active civic participation to the society.
  • (c) Holding a job and taking part into the functioning and development of a sustainable economy.
  • (d) Forming an outlook on life, based on human and scientific values, national and universal culture and stimulation of intercultural dialogue.
  • (e) Education based on dignity, tolerance and observance of human fundamental rights and freedom.
  • (f) Cultivation of sensibility towards human problems, the moral and civic values and respect for nature and natural, social and cultural environment.

In Romania, only diplomas recognized by the Romanian State, in compliance with the applicable laws, are valid. The statute of the graduation documents issued by the Educational facilities and institutions is established by order of the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research. The content and format of the graduation documents are set by Government decision, at the proposal of the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research.

Compulsory education is a 10-year education and includes primary and secondary education. The obligation to attend the 10-year daytime education ceases at 18 years old. In order to fulfill the objectives of education and vocational training through the national education system, state high school education is generalized and free.

The national pre-university educational system includes the following levels:

  • Early education (0 – 6 years), including the ante-preschool level (0-3 years) and pre-school education (3-6 years), which includes the little group, the medium group and the big group;
  • Primary education which includes the preparatory grade and 1st – 4th grades;
  • The secondary education, which includes:
    • (i) the lower secondary or middle education, which includes 5th –8th grades;
    • (ii) the secondary upper education which can be:
      • (ii1) high school education, which includes 9th – 12th/13th high school grades, with the following paths: theoretical vocational and technological;
      • (ii2) vocational education with a duration of 3 years
  • Tertiary non-university education, which includes post-high school education.

High-school, vocational and technological education, training and high-school education are organized for specialization and qualifications set by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, according to the National Qualifications Register.

The general compulsory education consists in the primary education, the lower secondary education and the first 2 years of the upper secondary education.

The duration of studies within the middle secondary education is 4 or 5 years, according to the framework plans approved by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research. For some full-time education forms with frequency and for the part-time middle secondary education, the duration of studies extends by one year.

The graduates of the Xth grade from the technological or vocational path who completed a practical training stage may take an exam for certifying the qualification corresponding to the certification level established by the National Qualifications Framework.

The training and technical education is made up of: training, technical and post high-school education.

The forms of organization of pre-university education are: daytime and evening education. Compulsory education is a daytime type of education.

The higher education is ensured by universities, academies, institutes, higher education schools, and other such, named higher education institutions or universities.

Structure of the national education system 2014/15

Age of students                                                                                                                                                                                 Programme duration (years)

Diagram 2015 Romania.png

 

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source: Eurydice


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