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Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

The assembly of all public and private educational institutions of all types, levels and forms of instruction and education constitutes the national education system. The national education system is structured into education levels such as to ensure coherence and continuity of instruction and education according to individual and age particularities of the pupils/students. 

The national education system includes the following levels: 

Early education (0—6 years)

Early education (0—6 years), consisting of:

  • the before preschool level (0—3 years)
  • the preschool education (3—6 years), which includes:
    • the small group
    • the middle group
    • the big group.

Primary education (ISCED 1)

Primary education (ISCED 1) includes:

  • the preparatory grade
  • grades 1—4. Transition from primary education to lower secondary education is conditioned only by the successful graduation of primary education.

Secondary lower education (ISCED 2) or secondary education

Secondary lower education (ISCED 2) or secondary education, which includes grades 5—8. The access to the higher level is achieved by a national evaluation examination and distribution in upper secondary education units. 

The secondary superior education (ISCED 3)

The secondary superior education (ISCED 3) can be:

  • high school education, which includes the high school grades 9-12/13, with the following pathways:
    • theoretical
    • vocational
    • technological, or
  • a 3-year professional education. The graduates of the professional education promoting the certification examination of the professional qualification may attend the high school education courses.

The professional and technical education is composed of:

  • professional education
  • technical education
  • post secondary education.

The non-university tertiary education (ISCED 4)

The non-university tertiary education (ISCED 4) includes the post secondary education. 

The higher education (ISCED 5-8)

The higher education (ISCED 5-8) is organized in: universities, study academies, institutes, higher studies schools, referred to as higher education institutions or universities, temporarily authorized or certified.

The high school graduates with high school diploma can enrol in the higher education.

The admission conditions are different from one institution to another.

The structure of the higher education reflects the principles of the Bologna process:

  • Bachelor studies
  • Master studies
  • PhD studies.

Adult education

Adult education includes training programmes at all qualification levels, organized in the public or private sector. 


The pre-primary, primary, secondary and post secondary non-tertiary education comprise the Pre-university education. Pre-university education is subordinated through the County School Inspectorates to  the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research. 

Primary and lower secondary education are compulsory (11 years of study). 

Finalisation of the high school education (in liceu - upper cycle) is attested through agraduation certificatecertificat de absolvire that confers the right:

  • to attend, according to the provisions of the law, post secondary non-tertiary education
  • to sit the examenul de bacalaureat and
  • the attestation exam.

Graduates also receive the updated personal portfolio for permanent education and, upon request, the registration paper – foaia matricolă. 

High school graduates that sit and pass the examenul de bacalaureat receive the diploma de bacalaureat conferring to the holder the right to attend higher education, in the conditions established by the law. 

The post secondary non-tertiary education is provided within post-high schools and foremen schools and may be attended only by high school graduates – holding or not a diploma de bacalaureat. 

In Pre-university education, pupils can transfer between different schools and educational routes, profiles or specialisations on the basis of specific rules, established by the Regulation concerning the Organisation and Functioning of Pre-university Education Units.

 

Higher education is coordinated by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, complying with the principles of the university autonomy.

Higher education is accomplished through:

  • universities
  • institutions
  • academies of study
  • post-university studies schools.

Higher education institutions usually include several:

  • faculties
  • university colleges - colegiu universitar
  • departments
  • chairs
  • units for scientific research, design and micro-production.

The mission of the higher education institutions is:

  • either education and research, or
  • only education.

Establishment of the higher education institutions is possible only through dedicated laws, according to the higher institutions accreditation and diploma recognition procedures.

The higher education institutions establish the admission methodology, according to the general criteria established by the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research.

Only high school graduates holding a diploma de bacalaureat can be admitted in higher education.

Specialisations and specialisations groups are established by theMinistry of National Education and Scientific Research in cooperation with the Ministry of Labour, Social Solidarity and Family and upon consulting the National Council for Academic Evaluation and Accreditation, the higher education institutions as well as other interested players.

At the higher education level, the open character is ensured through the University Charter.