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Romania:Organisation of Private Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

According to the provisions of the Education Law (Law 84/1995, republished, subsequently amended and completed), economic agents, individuals and entities with legal personality can establish private educational institutions with the agreement of the School Inspectorates following an accreditation procedure. Accredited private educational institutions are part of the national education system and can receive support from the state.

Private education functions according to the law if:

  • It is organised and functions based on the non-profit principle;
  • It is organised based on non-discriminatory principles and rejects ideas, currents and attitudes that are anti-democratic, xenophobic and racial;
  • It respects the national standards.

Evaluation criteria for private education institutions refer to the basic domains of organisation and functioning: teaching staff, content, material basis and financial activity.

The Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Pre-universitary Education (ARACIP) establishes the national standards for each criterion, differentiated by education level.

The accreditation procedure follows two steps:

  • The temporary functioning authorisation that gives the unit the provisory right for organising and functioning. The organizations providing education with a temporary functioning authorization” are committed to request the accreditation maximum 2 years after the first graduation of primary/secondary level, otherwise the temporary functioning authorization could be lost.
  • The accreditation that confers the unit all the rights established by the law.

When organising a private kindergarten (grădiniţa), the initiators have to comply with the following general standards, as provided by the Education Law (Law 84/1995, republished, subsequently amended and completed):

  • The number of children per age-level group cannot exceed the number established by the law (that is 20);
  • Teachers and management staff have to be full-time employed and appointed according to the provisions of the Teaching Staff Statute (Law 128/1997);
  • The material basis has to comply with the national standards; in order to obtain the accreditation, the kindergartens have to prove that at least 25% of the income has been invested in the material basis during the provisory functioning;
  • After two graduations subsequent to accreditation, the unit has to prove it owns at least 50% of the educational spaces it uses.

When organising a private primary school, the initiators have to comply with the following general standards, as provided by the Education Law (Law 84/1995, republished, subsequently amended and completed) :

  • The number of children per class cannot exceed the number established by the law (that is 25);
  • Teachers and management staff have to be full-time employed and appointed according to the provisions of the Teaching Staff Statute (Law 128/1997);
  • The material basis has to comply with the national standards; in order to obtain the accreditation, the schools have to prove that at least 25% of the income has been invested in the material basis during the provisory functioning;
  • After two graduations subsequent to accreditation, the unit has to prove it owns at least 50% of the educational spaces it uses.

The framework-curricula and corresponding syllabi of private Pre-universitary education have to respect in proportion of at least 80% the national curriculum and have to comply with the national standards. The Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports is the authority that approves the curriculum frameworks and the corresponding syllabi for private education.

Financing of private educational institutions is performed according to the in-force financial norms and is ensured by the investors and through fees paid by the parents. The fees are established autonomously by the private educational institutions, within the general framework provided by the law.

Two general trends have been registered in the recent years: an augmentation of the number of requests to establish private education institutions, and a diversity of the profiles and specialisations offered to the candidates by the existing private education institutions.

The best represented segment in the private Pre-universitary education continues to be the pre-primary level. At the same time, an important number of these private education institutions are now developing primary education, too.