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Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

The general legal framework for organising and functioning of Pre-university education, including primary education, is established by the Law of National Education (Law 1/2011).

According to the provisions of the Law of National Education (Law 1/2011), primary education includes the preparatory grade grades and I to IV grades.

The specific organisational framework for the entire activity of Pre-academic education institutions is set by the Regulation for Organisation and Functioning of Pre-academic Education Institutions (Order of the Minister of Education 4925/2005).

The State and private pre-university educational institutions netwrok is organized by local public authorities, with the approvals of the school inspectorates. Legal persons and individuals may establish primary school educational institutions, according to the law.

Pre-university educational institutions, irrespective of their type, level, form, programme, are evaluated and accredited on a regular basis, in compliance with the applicable law

Geographical Accessibility

Public primary education is organised in independent units (primary schools) or within schools covering all grades from I to VIII, Şcoala generală. In urban areas primary education can also be organised in schools covering grades I to XII/XIII (usually in arts, sports or pedagogical schools). In rural areas, independent public primary schools are organised mostly in the villages where the number of pupils is too low to also organise gimnaziu.

Persons belonging to national minorities have the right to study and receive instruction in their mother tongue, at all levels and forms of education with appropriate request, in compliance with this law. Taking into account local needs, groups, classes, sections or school units with teaching in the languages of national minorities may be established, upon request of parents or legal guardians and in compliance with the provisions of law. Any Romanian citizen or citizen of the EU or Swiss Confederacy may enrol and study, irrespective of their mother tongue and of the language in which he/she has previously studied, to all forms of education in the Romanian language, in the languages of the national minorities, or in international languages.

Admission Requirements and Choice of School

The Law of National Education (Law 1/2011) stipulates that children reaching the age of 6 before the beginning of the school year are enrolled in the preparatory grade. At the written request of their parents, tutors-at-law, or legal sponsors, children reaching the age of 6 by the end of the calendar year may also be enrolled in the preparatory grade, if they are adequately developed from the physical and somatic point of view.

In each county are organised a number of schools providing primary education with supplementary or integral arts/sports programme. These schools function according to a specific curriculum that ensures both accomplishment of the finalities and educational objectives specific to primary education and intensive arts/sports training. The admission of pupils in these schools is subject to a testing of their skills according to the specificity of the arts/sports intensive training programme. The number of classes per week for this type of schooling is bigger than for the normal programme.

Age Levels and Grouping of Pupils

According to the provisions of the Law of National Education (Law 1/2011), primary education includes the preparatory grade grades and I to IV grades and is organised for pupils aged 6-11.

A class of any grade in primary education works with one teacher in the primary education and comprises in average 20 pupils, but no less than 12 and no more than 25. However, the Ministry of National Education can approve classes below the minimum or over the maximum number of pupils per class – according to the specific conditions (isolated areas, classes with tuition in the languages of the national minorities, etc.). In general, classes are homogenous regarding the age of the pupils.

The Ministry of National Education may approve the organization of “The Second Chance” type educational programmes with the purpose of promoting primary education for persons who, exceed by four years the appropriate grade age, and who for various reasons, failed to graduate from this educational level before the age of 14.

Primary education is organized and operates regularly according to a morning programme.

Organisation of the School Year

For primary education, as in the case of pre-primary education, the school year in Romania comprises 2 semesters, 3 holidays during the school year and 1 summer holiday. The exact calendar of the school year is established each year through Order of the Minister of Education.

According to the law, schools can request County School Inspectorates amendments of the school year calendar due to objective reasons: special weather conditions, specificity of the area (agricultural activities), natural calamities, schools with the majority of the pupils of other beliefs than the Orthodox one, etc. The County School Inspectorates can approve such requests subject to the condition that for all pupils is respected the total number of school-weeks and corresponding school-days as established by the Ministerial Order.

Organisation of the School Day and Week

The weekly (5-day week system) and daily timetables for primary education are established by the administration council of the schools subsequent consultations with the teachers and the parents and based on the following criteria:

  • The number of classes per week and subject within the range established by the National Curriculum for each grade, and
  • The minimum and maximum number of classes per week established by the National Curriculum for each grade.

Primary education is usually organised in the morning, starting each day of the week (5-day week system). Class periods are 45-50 minutes long and are followed by 10-15 minutes breaks. Most schools organise a 20 minutes break after the third class hour.

According to the provisions of the Law of National Education (Law 1/2011), educational institutions may extend their activities with their pupils after classes, by “school after school” type programmes, according to the decision made by the board of directors. Educative, recreational and leisure time activities are provided, in cooperation with the parents’ associations and with public authorities by “School after school” (school extension) activities, as well remedial learning activities, for the consolidation of the acquired competences or for speeding up learning. Where this is possible, the partnership may be carried out with non-governmental organizations responsible for this area. The “School after school” type programmes are organized based on a methodology approved by order of the ministry of National Education. The State may finance the “School after School” learning programme for children and pupils from disadvantaged groups, according to the law.