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Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

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Overview Romania

Contents

Romania:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Romania:Historical Development

Romania:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Romania:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Romania:Political and Economic Situation

Romania:Organisation and Governance

Romania:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Romania:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Romania:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Romania:Organisation of Private Education

Romania:National Qualifications Framework

Romania:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Romania:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Romania:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Romania:Funding in Education

Romania:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Romania:Higher Education Funding

Romania:Adult Education and Training Funding

Romania:Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisation of Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Assessment in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:Primary Education

Romania:Organisation of Primary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Romania:Assessment in Primary Education

Romania:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Romania:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Romania:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Romania:Higher Education

Romania:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Romania:First Cycle Programmes

Romania:Bachelor

Romania:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Romania:Second Cycle Programmes

Romania:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Romania:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Romania:Adult Education and Training

Romania:Distribution of Responsibilities

Romania:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Romania:Main Providers

Romania:Main Types of Provision

Romania:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Romania:Teachers and Education Staff

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Romania:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Management and Other Education Staff

Romania:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Romania:Management Staff for Higher Education

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Romania:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Quality Assurance

Romania:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Romania:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Educational Support and Guidance

Romania:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Romania:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Romania:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Romania:Mobility and Internationalisation

Romania:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Mobility in Higher Education

Romania:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Romania:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Romania:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Romania:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Romania:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Romania:National Reforms in School Education

Romania:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Romania:National Reforms in Higher Education

Romania:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Romania:European Perspective

Romania:Legislation

Romania:Institutions

Romania:Bibliography

Romania:Glossary

Types of Institution

The post-secondary non-tertiary education (“post-high school”) is realised by şcoala postliceală (post-high school) and by the apprenticeship school. Post-secondary non-tertiary education  is 1 to 3 years long, depending on the complexity of the qualification, and is organised at the initiative of the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports or following the specific requests of firms and other interested institutions. The nomenclature with qualifications which can be provided within the  post-secondary non-tertiary education is approved by a Decision of Government, according to a proposal of the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports and of the Ministry of Labour.
Post-secondary non-tertiary education is usually organised by the education institutions which have TVET classes – in the same or close profile and specialisations, in order to make better use of the existing material basis (equipments, workshops, other resources) and human resources and to improve financial efficiency.

Geographical Accessibility

In each development region, the high schools network has developed according to the local (commune, town) requirements of the labour market. The social and economic reform in the development regions led to the necessity of restructuring the high schools/cluster schools network in order to better respond to the requirements of a changing society and economy, as well as to the strategic objectives of the regional development policy. Educational authorities have taken measures both to merge high schools and VET schools with similar profiles and specialisations and to better adapt the educational offer to the local and regional requirements.

Admission Requirements and Choice of School

Post-secondary non-tertiary education (post-high school) is provided for the high school graduates holding or not a . The admission requirements for the foremen school includes supplementary the condition that the candidates have to have by the beginning of the first year of study at least 3 years of seniority in a trade corresponding to the specialisation of studies. The admission methodology is established by the educational institutions, according to the general criteria set by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports. In the case that the number of candidates is over the number of places offered or following the request of the economic agent financing the schooling, the educational institution organises an entrance examination. The content of the entrance examination is established by the educational institution according to the specialisation of studies offered. In certain cases – if the specialisation requires specific skills the entrance examination may be preceded by an eliminatory skills-test.

Age Levels and Grouping of Pupils

Post-secondary non-tertiary education is organised for high school graduates (over 18/19 years old) within post-high schools and foremen schools. The duration of studies is between 1 and 3 years and the grouping of the students is based on the specialisations.
The number of pupils per class depends on the education level and is established by the Education Law: post-secondary schools – in average 25 pupils per class, but no less than 15 and no more than 30.

Organisation of the School Year

Organisation of the school year for post-secondary non tertiary education is decided yearly by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports. The structure of the school year takes several aspects into consideration: a balanced distribution of the school-days and holidays, the specificity of the climate in Romania and the respect for the religious beliefs of the population. The National Curriculum is established by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports and specifies for each pre-university education level and grade:

  • The total minimum and maximum number of classes per week;
  • The minimum and maximum number of classes per week for each subject within the common core curriculum;
  • The minimum and maximum number of classes per week dedicated to optional subjects/activities.

Within the framework set by the structure of the school year and the National Curriculum, each pre-academic education institution has the full responsibility to establish the weekly and daily timetables for each grade.

The school year in Romania for  post-secondary non tertiary education comprises two semesters, three holidays during the school year and a summer holiday. The exact calendar of the school year is established each year through Order of the Minister of Education.

Organisation of the School Day and Week

The weekly (5-day week system) and daily timetables for post-secondary non-tertiary education are established by the administration council of the schools subsequent consultations with the teachers and the parents/the pupils and based on the following criteria: the number of classes per week and subject within the range established by the Frame Plans for each grade, and the minimum and maximum number of classes per week established by the Frame Plans for each grade. According to the provisions of the in-force Frame Plans, the total number of classes per week and grade for post-secondary non-tertiary education depends on the education level, branch of study, profile and specialisation/ vocational qualification. For the post-secondary non-tertiary education the number of classes per week depends on the specialisation and the duration of studies and is established through the curriculum that has to be approved by the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports.